SYEDNA IDREES IBNE SYEDNA HASAN (a.q.) (832-872/1429- 1467)
Date of birth: Date of death: Place of burial: Mazoon: Mukasir: Books written in his era:
Illustrious Fatimi Dai, Syedna Idrees (R. A) ascended on to the throne of Dawat to spread guidance and Fatim lore. During his long years, he endeavoured ceaselessly and raised Dawat to a new height.
During the period of Syedna Idrees, hostility of Zaidi Imam, Ali ibn Salah remained continue in the early years of his period. Ali ibn Salah was trying to take over the fortresses of different clans. Ashraaf and many other tribal chiefs formed an alliance to face the threat of Zaidis. They requested Syedna for assistance. Syedna Idrees provided aid to them to defend their fortresses. To retaliate this, Zaidi Imam sent an army to attack the fortress of Iraas where Syedna was living. But, his army was repelled successfully. Then, through Syedna, a peace agreement a peace agreement was concluded between Al-Malik Al-Zahir and Zaidi Imam.
After sometime, Syedna Idrees settled in the fortress of Shibam that is situated on one of highest peaks of Yemen. There he remained busy with the guidance of Moomineen, spread of Ilm of Aale-Mohammed, and compilation of Kutub and Rasaeel in Fatimi lore.
In 840/1337, epidemic disease of Plague spread in Yemeen through Europeans who visited Aden on their way to India, Chine and East Indies. Thousands of people including Zaidi Imam perished and many cities, towns and fortresses became deserted. A large number of Moomineen including a number of Hudood also passed away.
In 858 AH, the rule of Banu Ghassan of Zabid and Taeez terminated and they were followed by Tahiris. Zaidis were also facing their downfall and internal conflicts. So, the later part of Syedna's period was relatively peaceful. He remained busy with the guidance of Moomineen and compilation of Kutub and Rasaeel. Syedna Idrees passed away at Shibam in 872 AH. Syedna Idrees used to receive Moomineen of Al-Hind with great 'Ishfaaq' and 'Karaamat' as he noticed their 'Ikhlaas'. He witnessed the sluggishness of Yemenis in the obedience of Dai. So, with the Ilhaam of Imam uz Zaman, he forebode the transfer of the seat of Dawat from Yemen to Al- Hind.
During the period of Syedna Idrees that lasted for forty years, far reaching changes took place globally in the intellectual, political, and economic fields. Muslim world was divided into number of big and small sultanates often fighting among themselves. There was intense rivalry between Ottomans of Asia Minor and Safavids of persia, and between Ottomans and Mumeluks of Egypt. In India also, there was in-fighting among different clans. Sayyids, the rulers of Delhi lost their rule to an Afghan clan called Lodhis. Though Ottomans were attacking on the Eastern part of Europe, but Muslim world had become weak politically and militarily because of the large scale destruction and massacre made by Monghols, crusaders, Timur, and due to the in-fightings among different rulers of Muslim world. Economically, Muslim world was losing it's control over global trade. Intellectually also, the sun of Islamic civilization was facing it's eclipse and it was lacking in the production of outstanding scholars in different intellectual fields. As against this, Europe was gaining political stability and greater strength militarily due to the innovation in weapons. Europeans were trying to gain control over global trade as Portuguese had established their commercial posts in India. During this period, European Renaissance began after the absorption of the fruits of Islamic civilization.
Syedna Idrees (R. A) remained on the throne of Dawat for forty years, nine months and sixteen days. He passed away on 19th Zilqadah 872 AH. His Qaber Mubarak is in Shibam.
After Syedna Idrees (R. A), four Doat Kiram, Syedna Hasan ibne Syedna Idrees (R.A) (872-918/1467-1512), Syedna Husain ibne Syedna Idrees (R. A) (918-933/1512-1527), Syedna Ali ibne Syedna Husain (R. A) (933- 933/1527-1527), and Syedna Mohammed ibne syedna Hasan (R. A) (933- 946/1527-1539) remained occupied with the guidance of Moomineen, spreading of Knowledge, and Tamheed to transfer the seat of Dawat to Al- Hind (India). They spent huge sum of money on Talabat ul Ilm who came to them to seek Knowledge.
Hiraz where the last four Doat Kiram of Yemen lived for most part of their period, remained less affected with the political upheavals continued in Yemen during that period. Zaidis were defeated by Tahiris and after that Yemen remained relatively peaceful. The rule of Tahiris was ended by the Mumeluks of Egypt in 923/1517 when they were stimulated for doing so by Sharfuddin Zaidi. This Sharfuddin was very hostile to Syedna Mohammed Izzuddin. He captured all the fortresses possessed by Syedna (R. A). When he demanded Syedna Mohammed to hand him over Masaar, the only fortress under the control of Syedna, Syedi Hasan ibne Nuh asked Syedna (R. A) to reply Shurfuddin Zaidi, " if you will fight us with the bullets of lead, we will fight you back with the bullets of gold and silver. Zaidi Imam stunned with such a bold reply and could not capture Masaar until Syedi Hasan passed away in 939 AH.
In 945/1538, Ottoman Turks dominated over Yemen defeating Mumeluks and Zaidis.
20th Dai, Syedna Hasan, 21st Dai, Syedna Husain, and 22nd Dai, Syedna Ali passed away in Masaar and their Quboor Mubarakah are in Masaar.
The followers of Dawat had become very sluggish in the obedience of Dai. Syedna Mohammed (R. A) did 'Imtihan' of the Moomineen of Al-Hind and found them very Mukhlis in the Mohabbat and Taat of Dai. He appointed Syedna Yusuf Najmuddin (R.A) as his successor and passed away in 946/1539 at Zabid.
Transfer of the seat of Dawat, which Tamheed was started by Syedna Idrees before about a hundred years, was not only an important juncture in the history of Dawat but of global history also. Far reaching changes took place globally around this period in political, economic, and intellectual fields. Muslim world had become weak and fragmented among number of big and small sultanate. Infightings among and within these sultanates were continue. There was rivalry between Ottomans of Asia Minor and Safavids of Persai, and between Ottomans and Mumeluks of Egypt. Inspite of this Ottomans onslaugh on East Europe was continue. They captured Constantinople, killed last Byzantine emperor Constantine XI, and ended Byzantine or East Roman empire. In India, Babar established Mughal dynasty defeating Lodhis in 1526 AD.
Europe was experiencing it's renaissance in intellectual field. Number of important men of learning were produced during this period. First French printing press was set up at the Sorbonne in 1470 AD. Printing press contributed significantly in the spread of new ideas in different disciplines of Knowledge. This in turn caused clashes between Church and men of learning.
During this period Martin Luther protested against the norms of Catholic Church and established protestanism. This in turn divided Europe, and it's kingdoms between these sects of Christianity and caused hundred years' wars between Catholic France and Protestant England. This period was the period of mercantilism for Europeans. They were trying to capture the control of global trade and to amass wealth from their trade with India, Chine and other parts of Asia. In the pursuit of such wealth Crestopher Columbus discovered America in 1492 AD (in the period of Syedna Hasan).
Describing the greatness of Doat Kiram and expressing his eagerness to look at them, Rasulullah (S. A. W) said: Narration of Kankar Al-Hindi who came to the Hazrat of Imam Ali Zain ul Abideen (S. A) and whom the Imam recognized with his knock on the door of Imam's home, shows that the light of Islam and Iman had reached to Al- Hind as early as the early period of Islam. Fatimi Dawat was spread in Al-Hind during the period of Imam Mustansir (S. A) by Maulaya Abdullah (Q. A), Maulaya Ahmed (Q. A), and Maulaya Nooruddin (Q. A). Due to the endeavour and virtues of Maulaya Abdullah, Raja Sidrajai Singh, the ruler of Gujrat and thousands of Hindus entered into the fold of Islam and Iman. After Maulaya Abdullah, Wulaat of Al- Hind endeavoured greatly to protect Dawat and to guide Moomineen. They established Darse to spread Knowledge. They asked Moomineen to adopt business as their occupation and to live peacefully without indulging themselves in any political activity. Rulers of their times respected them for their piousness and virtues. When Ahmed Shah, the ruler of Gujarat, built his new capital, the Ahmedabad in 813/1413, he requested Maulaya Ali, the Waali of Al-Hind to send some Moomineen to live there. Maulaya Ali sent Maulaya Adam with a number of Moomineen to settle in Ahmedabad. Syedi Hasan Pir was respected greatly by the Raja of Patan when he answered the difficult questions that posed him. When Mahmud Shah of Ahmedabad molested Moomimeen during the sedition of Jafer, Maulaya Raj acted patiently but bravely and saved many people from going to astray. Wulaat of Al-Hind guided Moomineen with such strive and Ikhlaas that their Ikhlaas caused the transfer of Fatimi Dawat from Yemen to Al-Hind.
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