Topics covered:  Paradigm inventions mentored and sponsored by Molana Imam Hakim bi Amrillah a.s.  'House of wisdom' build by Imam Hakim a.s.  Perfect Justice delivered by Imam Hakim a.s.  Stamps and currency notes issued in honour of Imam Hakim a.s. disciple Hasan ibn Hytham.  Where are weapons and books belonging to Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.w. and till Imam Jaffar Sadik a.s.?  Imam Hakim a.s., the man of charismatic miracles.  First medical school of world and international relations with China.  Justice System.  Similar traits among Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.w., Mola Ali a.s. and Imam Hakim bi Amr'Allah a.s.  Fatimi Dinâr: The first international currency of world.  Sharif Radi (compiler of Nahjul Balagha) on Imam Hakim a.s.  Ditto accusations on Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.w., Mola Ali a.s.and Imam Hakim a.s.  Baghdad Manifesto.  Accusation Imam Hakim a.s. converted into Christianity!  Syyeda Sitt al-Mulk r.a.
 Paradigm inventions mentored and sponsored solely by Molana Imam Al Hakim bi Amrillah a.s. -
 Pendulum - to measure time: Invented by Ali bin Yunus.  Sun Dial - to measure time: Invented by Ali bin Yunus. Molana Imam Hakim a.s. made observatory over hills for this inventions.  Hollowed metallic needle used for successful cataract (motiya'band) operation: Invented by Ammar bin Ali Al-Mausili. With Imam Hakim a.s. patronage he became the most important eye surgeon in Cairo and invented above. Cameras - Mother of all modern cameras is 'Pin Hole Camera', Spectacles (Optical science), Magnifying lenses, Anatomy of eye, First time offered the correct explanation for the apparent increase in the size of the sun and the moon when near the horizon.
#  to  - Invented by Hasan ibn Hytham within the infrastructure of Al Azhar University, Cairo (this is the world first modern university built by Fatimi Imam Molana Moiz a.s.).
With sponsorship and mentorship of Molana Imam Hakim a.s. Hasan ibn Hytham wrote 209 books on different sciences. His book on 'Treatise on optics' was translated in Latin in year 1270, it immensely influenced writing of Leonardo de Vinici, John Kepler, etc.
"How eyes see anything?" The then answer came from scientists of Greeks: Plato, Polemy and Eucilid. According to modern science trio are incorrect. World first correct answer to this question was given in mentorship of Imam Hakim a.s. by Hasan ibn Hytham. And to prove their hypothesis lead to the invention of cameras by our Fatimi scientists.
 'House of Wisdom' was built by Molana Imam Hakim a.s.
Its library holds over two million (2,000,000) books. Remember during that time Printing Press was yet to be invented. All books and their copies were manually written. Due to this access of literature was difficult. In such hard times Imam Hakim a.s. disposed two million (2,000,000) books to his students, researchers and scientists.
Printing press was invented 250 years before Mumbai University library was built. Mumbai University website says: After forty years of its establishment it had collection of 4,504 books! One hundred years after its establishment it had 220,000 books. Currently (after approx. 150 years of its establishment) it has little less than 700,000 books - number of books with Mumbai University is way far behind even from the half mark of the 2,000,000 books collection in Imam Hakim a.s. library!!!
Attendees of Imam Hakim a.s. library were provided free paper, pen and ink to make notes. Students coming from abroad to study in Al Azhar University and House-of-Wisdom besides giving them free boarding and lodging they were also paid stipend! Women folk were motivated for higher studies. 'A new and radical thought' in the world of one thousand years ago. Indeed there were dedicated class-rooms for women's seeking higher education. All Fatimi Ismaili Imams are Mola Ali a.s. of their respective era. Imam Hakim by his deeds above proved that he is the 'Gate' to access City of Knowledge, Prophet Mohammed s.a.w.w.
 "Aadil", name of Allah means one who does perfect justice.
Allah blew his 'noor' in Adam and it passed to his son selected by Allah, and then to his son... that noor of Allah came to 5th Imam Sadik a.s. then to his son Imam Ismail a.s. .... came to Imam Hakim bi Amrillah a.s., his words are akin to the verses of Quran. He is the speaking Quran of his time. With the grace of Godly 'noor' that he holds in him his justice is the perfect to the zenith that it cannot be further improved.
 Book: Tarikh-i-Antaki by Antaki (Year 1065 AD / 458 AH), re-published from Beirut, year 1909, page 206) - "Imam Hakim a.s. provided such kind of justice that his subject had never known before. They slept in their home secured in the possession of their properties."
 Book: Bada'i al-Zuhur by Ibn Ayyas (dated year 1524 AD / 930 AH, re-published from Cairo, year 1896, 1st volume, page 54) - "A man who lost his purse full of money in the streets of Cairo, and when after few days, he passed the same street, he found it untouched. None dare to touch it for fear of Imam Hakim a.s. punishment."
 Book: Al-Duwal al-Munqatia by Ibn al-Zafir (dated 1216 AD / 613 AH on page 59) - "At times of prayers, the shopkeepers would have their shops open and unguarded without fear of theft."
 Book: Ithbabt al Imama by Ahmad bin Mohammad Nisaburi -Justice for poors in general:Imam Hakim a.s. preferred simplicity, simple clothes, no jewellery, same like any poor of his sultanate could afford. [So the poorest of poor should not feel sad about his poverty. He will feel solace that his caliph too wear the outfit similar to him so why grudge for being poor.]
 Book: Ahsanul Kasas by al-Muqaddas al-Fazil Sheikh Ahmed Ali Raj sahib -"Hundreds of thousands of horses march behind in leadership of Imam Hakim a.s. still he personally lead simple life, wore common men outfit made of wool."
 Book: Ithbat al Imama - Like God, Imam Hakim had quality to generously donate without distinguishing between good and bad person.
 Ibn Ayyas (same citation, page 52) - "Imam Hakim a.s. justice became the favourite theme of both writers of story and myths as well as poets. Much of their works, praising and picturing al-Hakim a.s. as the champion of justice, shows the impression his rule left on people's imagination."
Postal stamos and currency notes honor
These honorary feats bestowed on our Fatimid scientist, disciple of Molana Imam Hakim bi Amrillah a.s.: Hasan ibn Hytham. Is there anyone in any sect of Islamic world who can claim in dignity and contribution he/she is equal to this disciple of Imam Hakim? No one.
BBC News (UK)in their article dated Sunday, 4 January 2009 said, "In true sense Hasan ibn Hytham was the world first scientist.
Highest denominated Iraqi currency note honoring disciple of Imam Hakim: Hasan ibn Hytham
 Weapons, books & belongings of Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.w. till Imam Jaffar Sadik a.s.? Hypothesis: Weapons and books of Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.w. and previous Imams will only go to the rightful Imam. Hypothesis in detail: [i] Ithna Asheri's one of the most prominent book: Kafi fi Ilm al-Din by Mohammad b. Yaqub Kulayni (Tehran), (1:377-39) says - "The authority of Imam is further substantiated by the books and weapons of the Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.w. the Imam reportedly inherited. These are decisive in establishing the authority of an Imam for these are among the signs (alamat) that can establish the identity of the true Imam. The weapons can ONLY fit a divinely designated Imam.
The books are important to Shi'i understanding of religious leadership since they authenticate the Imam claims to authority, there by nullifying rival claims to the Imamate." [Same mentioned by Liyakat N. Takim's book: The Heirs of The Prophet _ Charisma And Religious Authority in Shi'Ite Islam (year 2006), page # 28.] [ii] Usul-a-Kafi by al-Kulaini, 59:1 - Successor of Imam receives books, knowledge and weapons from the previous Imam. [iii] Ayatollah Ibrahim Amini website: Ali gave Imam Hasan his books and weapons and said, "The Messenger of Allah ordered me to appoint you as my successor and give you the books and weapons, just as he appointed me as his successor and gave me his books and weapons." When Ali ibn Abi Talib wanted to go towards Kufa, he gave his books and weapons to Umme Salma. When Imam Hasan returned from Kufa to Medina, Umme Salma gave them to him.
[iv]Bihar al- Anwar by Bakir Majlisi, Vol. 42, page 25: "Ali told Hasan, Prophet ordered me to give you my books and weapons, like he gave his to me, pass it to Hussain before you die. Then Ali Told to Hussain likewise you pass to your successor. Imam Ali Zainul Abideen on his death bed handed over to Imam Baqir a box containing books. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
PROOFS OF FACTS Sources/references: [1.]Historian Taghri Bardi, volume 4, page 224. [2.]Ibn Aseer, [3.]Al Fatimiyun Misr, page 223. [4.]Tareeqhul Islam, page 123. [5.]Tareeqh i Shia, page 226 [6.]Fatimi 19th Dai Sayyedna Idris a.q. [7.]Kanzul Akhbar by Shareef Hamiri Hussaini [8.]Sunni historian Molana Sayyed Abu Jaffar Nadwi in his book Aqd al Jawahir fi Ahwal al Bawahir.
Above sources reports: In year 407 A.H., 16th Fatimi Imam Hakim a.s. sent his missionary (Dai Hamiduddeen a.q.) to Medina to visit House of Imam Jaffer Sadik a.s. and commanded that at particular spot dig out books, quran, weapons and other belonging (tabar'rukât) of Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.w. and Imams a.s. Dai got all these things and handed to its real owner Imam Hakim a.s.
These historian further writes: These tabar'rukât (Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.w. weapons, books, Quran, etc) never reached to Ithna Asheri Imam Janab Musa Kazim till Janab Hasan Askari (none of the Ithna Asheri Imams), neither Banu Ummaiyyad got it nor did Banu Abbas.
These tabar'rukât came only to Ismaili Imams, where they rightfully belonged, where there was rightful Imamat. These belongings of Prophet Mohammed s.a.w.w. reached our lord Syyedna wa Molana wa Aaqa Imam Hakim bi Amrillah a.s. Subhan'Allah
Conclusion: Hence proved the rightful successor of Prophet Mohammed s.a.w.w. and Imam Jaffar Sadik a.s. are Ismaili Fatimi Imams a.s. Salwaat.
Imam Hakim a.s. Man of Charismatic Miracles -
In the world of Islam there are only two personalities from time of Adam till date (Christ is considered son of God, and not God)whose charismatic miracles numbered so much and were of such higher degree; beyond mortal imaginations that few Muslims incorrectly believed that these man-of-miracles Mola Ali a.s. and Imam Haqim a.s. are God indeed.
There are one million Nusairi and two million Druze, who respectively considered Mola Ali a.s. and Mola Imam Hakim a.s. as God (mazallah).
At least no one can deny the inference from the current population of Nusairi and Druze that both Mola Ali a.s. and Mola Imam Hakim a.s. were the man of miracles.
First medical school of world and international relations with China
'Medical school' concept was invented and world's first medical school, 'Darr at-Tibb' was built by Molana Imam Hakim bi Amrillah a.s. USA got its first medical school in Philadelphia - approx. 750 years after Imam Hakim a.s.
We have learnt the world's first international currency was Fatimi Dinar. Fatimi Caliphs made their subjects businesses prosper and flourish. To strengthen this effect, China which was important consumer market was targeted by Imam Hakim a.s.
Muslims relationship with China (Tang dynasty) before Imam Hakim a.s. were stranded. To re-establish relations with China, in year 1008 AD Imam Hakim a.s. sent his sea captain Domiyat to meet Song Dynasty (960 - 1270 AD) emperor Zhenzong, Domiyat presented personal Gifts from Imam Hakim a.s. to China emperor Zhenzong. This gesture of Imam Hakim a.s. successful reopened the diplomatic relations between China and Egypt.
Note: Song dynasty invented revolutionary use of gunpowder weapons (catapult projected bombs, fire lances, flame throwers and land mines).
Commentary titled 'Religion and Ethics Islam Origin' by BBC reports: During Song dynasty (after Imam Hakim a.s. re-established diplomatic relations) Muslims in China dominated foreign trades and the imports/exports industry to the south and west. Indeed the office of Director General of Shipping for China's great seaport of Quanzhou was consistently held by a Muslim during this period.
As Imam Hakim a.s. revolutionised the world of medicine and Layli-Huzzat of Fatimi Dawat Hz. Ibn Sina with grace of Fatimi Imams a.s. wrote the Bible of medicine: The Canon of Medicine - 200 medicine from it have been included in Chinese medical book 'Chinese Materia Medica' this was done during Song dynasty. This was re-published in 1968-75. Salwaat
How about a justice system in a monarchy state where the lowest of least, resource-less commoner is confident of getting accurate justice against the mightier than mightiest in a state (King) by filing simple suit in his nearest and easily accessible local court without any natural fear of retaliation?!!!
Judge of such court keeps 'Justice' above all irrespective of the designation of defender (King) and plaintiff (commoner), even at his own lowest level, conveniently and without any beaurocratic hassle the Judge could issue summon to the King (whose empire is as big as that of Alexander the great), he treat both parties as ordinary suitors, and deliver justice without being biased towards any party!
=> At least this can be said that that is the perfect justice system in words, in spirit and in practice. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - -
In entire life history of earth never above type of Justice System ever happened. Only & only one exception: Justice system of Fatimid / Fatimi Imams a.s. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Reference from book: A Short History Of The Fatimid Khalifate Author: De Lacy O' Leary, D.D. (Lecturer in Bristol University) Page #165 & 166 "A certain merchant had all his money invested in the prohibited fruit, and lost everything by the seizure and destruction of his goods. He appeared before the Qadi (local court judge) and summoned Imam Hakim a.s. to appear and make good the destruction caused by his officials. The Khalif (Imam Hakim a.s.) appeared to answer the charge preferred against him, the Qadi treating him like any other citizen against whom complaint had been made. The merchant asked for compensation to the amount of 1,000 pieces of gold. Imam Hakim a.s. in his defence says that the fruits destroyed (by officials) were (prohibitive / regulated in nature) intended to be used in the preparation of drinks forbidden (alcohol) by the law of the Quran, but that if the merchant will swear that they were not intended for this purpose but only to be eaten he was willing to pay their price.
The merchant refuses to take the oath until the Khalif actually produce the money before the Qadi. Imam Hakim a.s. ordered the money to be brought into court, and when it is produced the merchant swore that the fruit was intended only for eating.
He then received the money and gave Imam Hakim a.s. a formal receipt. He then demanded letters of protection from Caliph that he might not incur any retaliation for his suit, and these were given. When the case was concluded the Qadi, who had up to this point treated both parties as ORDINARY suitors, rose from his seat and gave Ameer-al-mumineen Imam Hakim bi Amrillah a.s. the salute customary at court. Imam Hakim a.s. admired the Qadi's conduct, and made him valuable presents in recognition of his treatment of the case." Salwaat
Similar traits among Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.w., Mola Ali a.s. and Ameer-al-Mumineen Imam Hakim bi Amr'Allah a.s.
When the then Jews and Christians troubled Muslims Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.w. waged war against them and acquired their habitat of Khaibar and Tabook in Saudi Arabia. For TWENTY FIVE plus years period of caliphate of Ameer-al-mumineen Imam Hakim bi Amrillah a.s. below territories remained under his Islamic rulership: (1)Israil, Palestine, Jordan, Syria - where Jews resided; (2)Italy (complete/full of Italy) - the head quarter of Christian missionaries.
Note: In entire life history of Italy no Muslim could have ever ruled over complete Italy except rightful Fatimi Imams who ruled over it for centuries. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Azân: In Mohammad s.a.w.w. era azân (call for prayers) was recited with sentence "Hayya ala kherul amal", but for next approx. 350 years after Mohammad s.a.w.w. (except 5 years of Mola Ali a.s. caliphate) this sentence was deleted and replaced by blank or by innovative sentence "As'salato kherun min al nawm".
Ameer-al-mumineen Molana Imam Hakim a.s. re-established the sunnat of Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.w. the innovations (biddat) in azân was deleted and replaced by original Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.w. sentence, "Hayya la kherul amal." In Mecca and Medina the Jumma Khutba were recited in name of Imam Hakim a.s. and azân was recited with originality throughout twenty five plus years of Imam Hakim a.s. Islamic caliphate.
Fatimi Dinâr: The first international currency of world:
When the writer of this piece of article went to British Museum, in it to the section where the Coins Collections is exhibited. He saw the only pure Gold coin allowed by the British Museum to be given access to public to touch and feel in ones hand is the Fatimi Dinar. The care taker told me, "Fatimi Dinar was the world first international currency."
Ruler and dates: al-Mansur Abu ‘Ali al-Hakim bi-amr Allah ibn al-‘Aziz, (386-411 H/996-1021 CE) Mint name: Misr – Egypt, with the mint probably located in al-Qahira (Cairo) Date: 409 H (1018-1019 CE) Metal and denomination: Gold dinar Weight and measurement: 4.21 g / 22.0 mm
Field: la ilah illa allah / wahdahu la sharik lahu / muhammad rasul allah / ‘ali wali allah. Meaning “no god but God, unique He has no associate. Muhammad is the messenger of God, Ali is the chosen one of God” Margin: Muhammad rasul allah arsalahu bi’l-huda wa din al-haqq li-yuzhirahu ‘ala al-din kullihi wa law kariha al-mushrikun. Meaning: “Muhammad is the messenger of God who sent him with guidance and the religion of truth that he might make it supreme over all other religions, even though the polytheists may detest it.” Sura 9 (al-Tawba), verse 33 ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Field: Abd allah wa waliyuhu / al-Imam al-Hakim bi-Amr allah / Amir al-mu’minin wa ‘abd al-rahim / wali ‘ahd al-muslimin. Meaning: “the Servant of God and his associate, the Imam al-Hakim bi-amr Allah, Commander of the Faithful, and ‘Abd al-Rahim, the chosen heir of the Muslims” Margin: Bism allah duriba hadha’l-dinar bi-misr sana tis‘ wa arba‘mi’a. Meaning: “in the name of God, this dinar was struck in Misr in the year nine and four hundred”
Credit: Inscription over coin and its transliteration and english translation - taken from www.simerg.com
Source: David Museum in Copenhagen.
Syyedna Imam Hakim's a.s. era coin - reverse side.
Sharif Radi (compiler of Nahjul Balagha) on Imam Hakim a.s.
Sharif Radi, the author of Nahjul Balagha was employed by Sunni Abbasi Caliph as official record keeper of Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.w. progeny. He compiled Nahjul Balagha approx. 400 years after death of Mola Ali a.s. and during the era when the majority of the Muslim territory of the world was ruled by Fatimi Imam syyedna Imam Hakim bi Amrillah a.s.
So Sharif Radi is neither under any pressure nor under any influence by Imam Haqim bi Amrillah a.s. as he is not residing in Fatimids territories, contrary he is residing under Sunni Abbasi caliph who were in severe animosity with Fatimids. In this chapter, where we will learn what Sharif Radi wrote in honour of Imam Hakim bi Amrillah a.s. - are cited in following books:
Ibnul Athir al Kamil, Diwan 546, viii, 24, 25
Kitab Ikhtilaf Usulil Madhahib of Qadi Numan B. Muhammad by S.T. Lokhandwalla, Year 1972 under 'Indian Institute of Advanced Study', Shimla. (This book is available with Jamat office of Udaipur)
Ibn Tiqtaqa also quoted the above poem in his al-Fakhri (comp. 699/1302).
Abul Fida (1273-1331) and
(Note: Both Abul Fida and Makrizi were not under the pressure nor influence of Abbasi Caliphs or the Fatimi Caliphs. )
Sharif Radi sahib wrote: Bismillah hir Rahman nir Raheem [1.] I'm suffering spritual pain in the land of Abbasi caliphs while Egypt is in caliphate of Imam Hakim bi Amrillah a.s. son's of Mola Ali a.s. ibn Abi Talib a.s. [2.] Imam Hakim a.s. and my (Sharif Radi) father is same i.e. Mola Ali a.s. and likewise our Lord is same i.e. Allah. [3.] Sunni Abbasi caliphate is strange for me. But my veins are joined with Imam Hakim bi Amrillah a.s., by the Lord of all people, Muhammad s.a.w.w and Ali a.s. [4.] I (Sharif Radi) as an Ithna Asheri is like going in the darkness ('gumrahi'), while the side of Imam Hakim bi Amrillah a.s. shines like the bright moon.
Ditto accusation on all: Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.w., Mola Ali a.s. and Imam Hakim a.s.
Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.w. for first forty years of his life convincingly proved that he only speak truth. And for balance part of his life of 23 years he preached Islam with lot of personal sacrifices and immense personal tolerance. The rewards he received from PEOPLES LEADERS at tail end of his life: Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.w. was adjudged: he is a mad man (mazallah). [Source: Muslim 13: 4014 and Bukhari 53: 393]. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Mola Ali a.s. was the first man to accept Islam, and from his birth in Kaaba till his martyrdom in mosque he defeated all enemies of Allah, saved life of Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.w. and enlightened mumineen with rightful knowledge. The reward he received from Muslims for his services: Ali was adjudged as son of Kaafir parents, his mother and father are both adjudged as Kafir. Though Ali's enemy Mawiya's parents were adjudged as Muslims! [Source: Bukhari 26: 658 and Muslim 7: 3132] - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Church of Holy Sepulchre (Basilica) in Israel/Jerusalem was used as centre to spy by Byzantine on Fatimids, Imam Hakim a.s. temporarily destroyed it. When security concerns settled he rebuilt Basilica by his own money. Italy and Israel all remained firmly throughout 25+ years under his Islamic sultanate - Basilica destruction and strong Fatimid rule over their all territories: gave birth to hatred in hearts of extremist Christians and Jews.
Abbasi caliphate has lost his almost all territories / grounds to Imam Hakim a.s., and very importantly all its scholars abandoned Baghdad and joined Imam Hakim a.s. 'House of Wisdom' (Darr i Hikma) and Al Azhar University. Abbasi caliphate became irrelevant.
So all enemies of Islam (Christians, Jews, & Abbasi caliph) reused their time tested tool: like Prophet Mohammed s.a.w.w. they declared Imam Hakim a.s. too is mad man (mazallah), and like their declaration that Mola Ali a.s.is son of kaafir (mazallah) so does they declared Fatimi Imam Hakim a.s. is not son of Fatima bint Mohammad s.a.w.w. (mazallah)!!!
Two types of reasoning used by non-Fatimi caliphs to justify - they are leaders of Muslims:
[i.]Nearness to Prophet -Hz. Abu Bakr’s claim to the caliphate over Ansar (residents of Medina) was - Prophet s.a.w.w. belonged to Quraysh and so did he, and he is near to Prophet. (By the way, Mola Ali a.s. contended with that line of argument he is closer to Prophet s.a.w.w. than all.)
[ii.] Who hold the stick own the ox- Mawiya in a letter to Imam Hasan a.s. didn’t deny latter’s exalted position in relation to the Prophet s.a.w.w. than his own, but claimed that this was not the criterion for the leadership of the community, but it is personal power and strength, ability in political affairs and administration, expansion of the empire.
Abbasi caliphs used both above reasoning, that they are relative of Prophet s.a.w.w. via his uncle Abbas. And they are the mighty in strength. For 250 years from Mola Ali a.s. / Hasan a.s. martyr - only Sunni’s, and no Shia's ever ruled any significant territories. Now sun of Fatimi caliphate dawned and Sunni Muslims have to acknowledge it. Abbasi became jealous of Fatimids, as they have superseded Baghdad as a centre for the arts, science and literature of the Mohammedan world. The Abbasid caliph Kadir billah (year 422/1031) got his rule dwindling before his eyes he found himself a virtual prisoner, while the Fatimid Caliph Ameer al-Mumineen Syyedna Imam Hakim a.s. was ruling powerfully and absolutely. "The Shia of Iraq had looked to Imam Hakim a.s. as their desired Caliph in year 398/1008 in Baghdad, and during a quarrel with the Sunnis, they shouted slogans, Ya Hakim, Ya Mansur in favour of al-Hakim.” [Source: Ibn al-Jawzi (year 597/1200) writes in 'al-Muntazam fi Tarikh al-Muluk' (Hyderabad, 1840, 7th vol., p. 237)] - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Q) Now people for first time have choice to affiliate with either of caliphs, so whom should they choose? A) Testing on two types of reasoning above one finds that (1) Fatimids are nearer in relations with Prophet than Abbasids, (2) Fatimi Imams giant territories has dwarfed and reduced Abbasi empire to irrelevance.
The Abbasid caliph Kadir billah alarmed over the prosperity of Egypt and growing influence of Imam Hakim a.s. inside his empire, therefore, he attempted to combat with Imam Hakim a.s. by another time tested cowardice tool: Abbasi forged lie that Ali is son of Kafir parents, where else their role model Mawiya is son of Muslim parents, likewise they hatched another lie (forged an official statement) based on the heresy that Fatimi Imams are not son of Fatima & Ali - so this conspiracy will undermine the prestige of Imam Hakim a.s. and can negate one of two reasons above. This conspiracy in history is known as ‘Baghdad Manifesto’. [Source: Ibn Khaldun (year 1332- 1406) in book 'Muqaddimah' (tr. Franz Rosenthal, London, 1958, 1st vol., pp. 45-6)].
Note: Ali Reda sahib, Imam of Ithna Asheris wilfully accepted and worked at the position of 'Wali Ahad' (crown prince) of Abbas Caliph, there by attesting the legitimacy of all Abbasi Caliphate stands for. Besides Ali Reda, Musa Kazim and Mohamed Jawad too were closely associated with Abbasids, and after their 11th Imam Hasan Askari passed away childless, following prominent Ithna Asheri scholars following footsteps of their Imam kept loyalty with Sunni Abbasi caliphs: Sharif Radi and his brother. As they were paid employees of Abbasi caliph so it was easy to force them to sign any manifesto that Abbasi caliph desired. Abbasi caliph forced or bribed with large sum of money to scholars and historians to sign his forged manifesto. [Source: Historian Ibn Taghri Birdi (year 874/1470) in 'al-Nujum al-Zahira fi Muluk wa al-Qahira' (Cairo, 1929, 4th vol., p. 236)]
Abbasi caliph first denouncement against the Alids claims of Fatimi Imams a.s. was made in Baghdad in the year 1011, and not when Fatimids came into power in year 910. It should be further noted that no historian before the year 1011 wrote anything derogatory about the Fatimi descent from Ali and Fatimi, or anything doubting their genealogy; and the Fatimi, from the year they declared their independence in Northern Africa, announced everyday in Azân (the calls to prayers) in the thousands of towns and villages stretching from Atlantic to Euphrates that came under their authority, and in official prayers or Khutbas on Friday in the larger towns that they were the directly descended from Fatima and Ali, and no where was any voice raised in opposition of this august claim. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Remember: [A] Sharif Radi (compiler of Nahjul Balagha)on several occasions with freewill have categorically wrote that Imam Hakim a.s. son of Mola Ali a.s. is the rightful Imam and he himself as an Ithna Asheri is misguided!
[B] We have three accredited Sunni historians: 1. Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406), 2. Abul Fida (1273-1331) and 3. Makrizi (1363-1442),
They were not under the pressure or influence of either the Abbasids or the Fatimids. These historians concur that the Fatimids of Egypt were the direct descendants of Ali and Fatima. Subhan'Allah.
Accusation Imam Hakim a.s. converted into Christianity!
Q) On what charges was murder of Mola Ali a.s. justified? A) Mola Ali a.s. was proven guilty of becoming Kâfir (no longer remaining as Muslim), hence his murder was justified per their non-Fatimi version of Islam. (Mazallah).
Imam Hasan a.s. murder was attempted on same grounds that as per their non-Fatimi version of Islam he was proven guilty of becoming Kâfir! (Mazallah) In this attack he was severely injured by dagger. Ameer-al-mumineen Molana Imam Hakim bi Amrillah a.s. too was painted with same brush by non-Fatimi's, that is like Mola Ali a.s. and Imam Hasan a.s. are Kâfir so is Imam Hakim a.s.
They alleged that Imam Hakim a.s. has become Christian and no longer believe in Allah, Prophet Mohammad s.a.w.w. and not even believe in position of Ali whose progeny he belongs.
These non-Fatimi for all above could neither prove their allegations nor could cite any evidence! Being jealous of raised status of Mola Ali a.s, Imam Hasan a.s. and Imam Hakim a.s., to show them down they forged these baseless charges against them.
Should Imam Hakim a.s. have become Christian he should have proclaimed, "Trinity of God" than saying Allah is one, he should have said "Christ is son of God" than saying Mohammad is Prophet of Allah. And he should not be proclaiming that Ali is the chosen one (Prophet's successor) by Allah.
One of the living miracle of Imam Hakim a.s., the alive proof that falsify all above allegations of Iblees version of Islam = (world's first international currency) the Fatimid Dinâr minted in Cairo under caliphate of Ameer-al-mumineen Imam Hakim bi Amrillah a.s. says (inscribes): "There is no god but Allah, unique; He has no associate. Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, Ali is the chosen one of Allah”
Inscription over the margin of coin - “Muhammad is the messenger of Allah who sent him with guidance and the religion of truth that he might make it supreme over all other religions, even though the polytheists may detest it.” Sura 9 (al-Tawba), verse 33
Inscription on the reverse side of the coin - "Abd allah wa waliyuhu / al-imam al-hakim bi-amr allah / amir al-mu’minin wa ‘abd al-rahim / wali ‘ahd al-muslimin." “The Servant of Allah and his associate, the Imam al-Hakim bi-amr Allah, Commander of the Faithful.” - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Another observation: One of the zenith of Fatimi caliphate was Ameer-al-mumineen Syyedna Imam Hakim bi Amrillah a.s. - He too, for himself, uses the words "Abd Allah". We the followers of Imam Hakim a.s. too should follow the sunnat of Imam Hakim a.s. by using same words "Abd Allah".
But Kothar con, forces and compell common Bohra to write "Abd Tahir Saifuddin, Abd Burhanuddin". Hope mumineen will think over above facts and revert to the basics & original of Fatimi Dâwat.
Syyeda Sitt al-Mulk-
In the entire history of earth only sister of Ameer-al-Mumineen Syyedna Imam Hakim a.s.: Syyeda Sitt al-Mulk - she is the only woman born till date on earth who as regent (quasi king or sultana) has ruled Islamic sultanate, that too of the territory size approx. equal to Alexander the Great. On earth till date, in Islamic sultanate, the only other women who did ruled as Governor of a country of Yemen was the 'Hujjat' of Imam Mustansirbillah a.s.: Syyeda Hurra Maleka a.q.
Respect of Syyeda Sitta al-Mulk in eye of Imam Hakim a.s. - Book: Women And The Fatimids In The World of Islam by Delia Cortese and Simonetta Calderinisays:
"Within two years she became a trusted advisor to al-Hakim, who ‘was consulting her in the affairs [of the ‘state’], acted according to her opinion, and did not oppose her advice’.^(1)"
"According to Ibn Zafir, Sitt al-Mulk had been guiding al- Hakim in his best policies by pointing him in the right direction and the imam- caliph valued her opinion so much that he would change his mind on matters at the last moment on account of her advice." ^(2) ^(1) = Ibn al-Qalânisî, in Ta'rîkh Dimashq, page# 97. ^(2) = Ibn Ýâfir, Akhbâr, page# 57. - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - -
Allegation: Sitta al-Mulk murdered Imam Hakim a.s. (mazallah) - Below historians and chroniclers have rejected and disproved above allegation, also note that despite all allegations, there appears with be no conclusive evidence against Syyeda Sitt al-Mulk r.a.:
Mikrezi, the Sunni historian,
Ibn Abi Tayy,
William of Tyre,
Those well informed about the vicissitudes of the Fatimid court, such as Ibn Hammad, do not mention Syyeda Sitt al-Mulk in reporting the circumstances of her brother’s death.
Al-QudaÆi, who during 454–7/1062–4 worked at the Fatimid court, does not mention Sitt al-Mulk’s involvement in the killing of al-Hakim either. However, he states that Sitt al-Mulk was instrumental in exposing the Berber chief, Ibn Dawwas, as the murderer of al-Hakim and, as a result, in having him killed by a group of the late imam-caliph’s loyal servants.
[#1 - Miqrezi is quoted from book: Damighul Bohtan by Sheikh Hasan Ali Sarangpur Wala. And from #2 till #11 quoted from book: Women And The Fatimids In The World of Islam by Delia Cortese and Simonetta Calderini]
The most famous source pointing at Sitt al-Mulk’s involvement is the almost- contemporary ÆAbbasid and anti-Fatimid historian al-Sabi’ (d. 448/1056). Al-Sabi’ adds that eventually Sitt al-Mulk killed Ibn Dawwas and those who were involved in the conspiracy, as she was afraid that her involvement in the murder would become known. This narrative became so popular that it was acritically quoted by a number of subsequent historians who, in so doing, contributed in forging the myth of ‘Sitt al-Mulk the fratricide’. A notable exception was Ibn Taghribirdi, who, while using al-Sabi’ when portraying Sitt al-Mulk and her supposed involvement, tells us that these were the rumours spread at the time and denies she had any role in the murder.
Sheikh Hasan Ali Sarangpur Wala sahib aptly says on page # 869 of volume 2nd of his book 'Damighul Bohtan': "यह भी किस कदर शर्मनाक गलत बयानीहै (of Dr. Zahid Ali, Hyderabad) कि सित्त अल-मुल्क अपने भाई कि बुरी हरकतों से नाराज़ थी।पहले इमाम हाकिम कि बुरी हरकतों का तो सबूत पेश करते फ़िर नाराज़गी कि बातें करते।" - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - -
Allegation: Mikrizi says, in year 410/1016 al-Hakim during a quarrel accused Syyeda Sitt al-Mulk of getting pregnant despite being unmarried!
In year 410/1016 the age of Syyeda Sitta al-Mulk was FIFTY THREE YEARS!!! The age old enough for a women to become pregnant! Hence above allegation is false. This allegation is also rejected in book: Al Hakim bi Amrallah, page 126. - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - -
After the martyrdom of Syyedna Imam Hakim a.s., Syyeda Sitt al-Mulk served to infant Imam al-Zahir a.s. and acted as his regent. Thus becoming the only women on earth to achieve this high elevated status in Islamic sultanate.
Wa akhiro dawana anil hamdo lillah he Rabbil aalameen.
Molana Imam Hakim a.s. (386-411/996-1021)
He was born on 23rd Rabi I, 375/August 14, 985 in Cairo, and was the first Fatimid Imam born on Egyptian soil. His name was al-Mansur Abu Ali, surnamed al-Hakim bi-Amrillah (He who governs by the orders of God). He acceded the throne in 386/996 at the age of 11 years, 5 months and 6 days. Makrizi writes in Itti’az (p. 386) that, "On the following morning the dignitaries assembled in the Grand Hall to await the new Caliph. Al-Mansur, wearing the diamond turban, entered the Hall and walked to the golden throne, the assembly bowing to the ground meanwhile. They greeted him with the baya as Imam and the title al-Hakim bi-Amrillah by which he was thereafter known." Abul Fawaris Ahmad bin Yaqub (d. 413/1022) writes in Ar-Risala fi’l Imama(comp. 408/1077) that Imam al-Hakim delivered his first speech from the pulpit of a mosque in Cairo on 386/996 and said: "O’ people, surely God has made us superior by the word of Imamate. He has eternalized it in us, so that it may last until the day of doom. The one of us receives it from the other and the son inherits it from the father. This is the bounty of God, He gives it to whomever He wishes, and God is of bounty abounding."
Imam al-Hakim, assumed full power of the empire at the age of fourteen, and thus it does not appear to have affected his early education. He had a good command of Arabic tongue, and a fine knowledge of poetry at an early age. Antaki (d. 458/1065) writes in Tarikh-i Antaki (Beirut, 1909, p. 217) that, "He appears as a pleasant man with a sense of humour, and often exchanged jokes with those to whom he spoke in the streets." Antaki also writes, "Al-Hakim would frequently pause in the streets of his capital to exchange greetings or answer questions from his poor subjects." (Ibid. p. 200) Marshall Hodgson writes in The Venture of Islam (London, 1974, 2:26) that, "Al-Hakim wished, above all, to be the perfect ruler; widely generous, enforcing strict good order, and absolutely just to all the people. Personally, he avoided all luxury and mounted a simple donkey for his excursions."
Imam al-Hakim is described as generous and brave by the chroniclers. His clothes were simple, made chiefly of wool, and chose to ride on an ass. He disliked diamond turban and wore plain white scarf. His food was simple, and that too cooked by his mother only. He was an impressive figure, tall and broad-shouldered with a powerful voice. His large eyes were dark blue and flecked with deep reddish gold.
The Berbers dominated the Fatimid army, known in Egypt as Maghriba (the westerners). Imam al-Aziz had introduced the Turkish and Iranian soldiers in the army, known as Mashriqa (the easterners), as a counterpoise against the fast growing influence of the Berbers. Only two days after the death of Imam al-Aziz, the Maghriba faction in the army began to raise and stipulated that no one but Ibn Ammar should be the wasita (chief minister). Ibn Ammar negotiated with them, securing their goodwill in exchange for increased payment.
Ibn Ammar intended to establish a purely Berber government in Egypt. His rule, indeed, was characterized by unmasked favourism of the Maghriba. Rudhrawari (d. 488/1095) writes that, "The aim of the Maghriba was to abolish the institution of the Fatimid Imam and build an empire of their own. Ibn Ammar’s friends advised him to kill Imam al-Hakim. Ibn Ammar, who intended to follow their advices, but dissuaded later on because Imam al-Hakim was too young and harmless." (cf. Tajarib al-Umam by Miskawayh, p. 222). The Berber tribe of Katama, known as Maghriba appears to have been the centres of this change, as they considered that they had been the conquerors of Maghrib and of Egypt, and why should the fruits of this conquest be laid at the feet of an Arab dynasty in the progeny of Ali. Immediately after his appointment, Ibn Ammar began to allocate high positions to his supporters. He dismissed the Turkish and Iranian soldiers from the high posts, and restored the power of the Berbers. He also curtailed the power of Abul Futuh Barjawan, the regent of the Imam, and confined him as a tutor of Imam al-Hakim in the palace. The chiefs of Mashriqa thus had been dismissed and some of their supporters were even executed. Annual allowances to them were stopped, and many of them fled from Egypt fearing being killed.
Barjawan allied himself with the Turkish commander called, Manjutagin, who himself was a great force in Syria. He readily espoused to Barjawan’s faction, and formed an alliance with some of the Bedouin chiefs and left Damascus at the head of six thousand troops to march towards Egypt. Ibn Ammar mobilized his troops under the leadership of Suleman bin Falah and provided him with the large sums of money to be used in diverting the loyalty of the Bedouin chiefs against Manjutagin. The two armies clashed between Ramla and Askalan, and after three days of minor encounters, they fought the final battle. Manjutagin was subdued and taken prisoner and sent captive to Cairo. The battle resulted in victory for the Maghriba, but impugned a dangerous problem to the state, a fast growing opposition between the Maghriba and Mashriqa in Egypt. The defeated Mashriqa arrived in Cairo and threatened Ibn Ammar’s rule, while the majority of Maghriba were in Syria with Suleman bin Falah. To overcome the problem, Ibn Ammar planned to increase his supporters and at the same time adopted a moderate line of policy towards Mashriqa, and pardoned Manjutagin. Suleman bin Falah also followed a similar policy in Syria and tried to convince its inhabitants that his plans were for peace and security. He dismissed Jaysh ibn Samsama from the governorship of Tripoli and replaced him with his own brother Ali.
Thus, Jaysh, a powerful Katama chief, went to Cairo to revenge himself by attempting to overthrow Ibn Ammar. He made an alliance with Barjawan and the chiefs of Mashriqa. Barjawan’s opportunity to gain power came with the presence of Jaysh in Egypt. He provoked riots and disturbances in Cairo and threw the blames on Ibn Ammar and his supporters. Ibn Ammar invited them to his palace under the pretext to discuss the riots between Berbers and Turks, but secretly had planned their executions. However, Barjawan, who had planted many spies in Ibn Ammar’s palace, was informed of this and formed a counter plan. He and his supporters decided to accept the invitation. They planned to foil the attack by retreating among them, thus exposing Ibn Ammar’s treasonable intentions. Barjawan’s plan succeeded and he and his allies returned to the royal palace, declared Ibn Ammar to be a traitor and prepared to fight. With as many supporters as he could muster, Ibn Ammar left Cairo and camped in the desert. Barjawan followed him and in a battle, which lasted half a day, Ibn Ammar was defeated, and fled. By the overthrow of Ibn Ammar in 387/997, Barjawan assumed the office of wasita (chief minister) after Ibn Ammar had held office for a little less than eleven months. Barjawan took out Imam al-Hakim in public to demonstrate his loyalty towards the Fatimids.
Barjawan pardoned Ibn Ammar and granted him the same monthly allowances and supplies that he had received during the period of Imam al-Aziz. With his accession to power, Abul Futuh Barjawan had to face a number of problems. He however handled the situation, and endeavoured to get an end of it, or at least to lessen the rivalry between Maghriba and Mashriqa. In the appointment of key posts, he tried to create equality, which would satisfy the average persons of both groups. He appointed Ismail bin Fahl al-Katami, a Maghriba chief as the governor of Tyre and Bushara al-Ikhshidi, a Mashriqa chief as the governor of Damascus. For the governor generalship of Syria and the supreme command of the Fatimid forces stationing there, he chose Jaysh ibn Samsama, a powerful Maghriba chief. He made an efficient Christian, Fahd bin Ibrahim al-Katib as his personal secretary and invested him the title of al-Rais (the master).
Barjawan now governed the state with unbounded authority. He wanted to make the Imam merely an ornamented figure in the palace, and bring him out to grace only in the state functions. He treated Imam al-Hakim as helpless child and did not allow him even to ride on horseback. Ibn Muyassar in Akhbar al-Misr (p. 56) and Makrizi in al-Khitat (2:4) consider such treatment as dictatorship (istibdad), causing Imam al-Hakim’s resentment which resulted his death.
Ibn Qalanisi (p. 51) writes that, "Abul Fazal Raydan, the bearer of the royal parasol (mizalla), once said to Imam al-Hakim, “Barjawan is planning to emulate the career of Malik Kafur (d. 357/968) and purposes to deal with you as Malik Kafur dealt with Ikhshidi’s son by isolating you and eliminating your power. The right thing to do is his immediate murder and administer your state alone.” Imam replied, “If this is your opinion and advice, then I need your help." Barjawan was finally slain on 16th Rabi II, 390/March 25, 1000 by Abul Fazal Raydan, who carried out the murder with his associates in a place called Bustan Duwayrat al-Tin. Barjawan held his office for 2 years, 7 months and 29 days. In terms of wealth and power, Barjawan was typical of the top echelon of the ruling circles. Ibn Bassam (d. 542/1148) writes in al-Dhakhira fi Mahasin al- Jazira (Cairo, 1945, p. 232) that after the death of Barjawan, an officer of central treasury found in his house: one hundred scarves (mandil) of different colours, one hundred another kind of scarves (sharabiya), one thousand pairs of trousers (sirwal), one Armenian silk (takka), an uncountable quantity of clothes, jewels, gold, perfumes and furniture, three hundred thousand dinars, one hundred and fifty horses and mules in his personal stable, three hundred pack horses and mules and a hundred and fifty saddles, twenty of which were pure gold.
Imam al-Hakim took over the power into hand at the age of fourteen years. Barjawan’s execution provoked some apprehension among the people, but he skillfully navigated the storm. He went out to the people and declared: "I have been informed of an intrigue which Barjawan made against me, and for that I caused him to be executed." Makrizi writes in Itti’az (p. 427) that Imam al-Hakim speaking before an assembly next day of state dignitaries (shuyukh ad-dawla), the leaders of Katama and Turks, said: "Barjawan was my slave and I employed him. He acted in good faith and I treated him with favours. He then began to misbehave, so I killed him." The death of Barjawan marks the beginning of the second period of Imam al-Hakim’s reign.
The period between 390/1000 and 396/1007 was critical because of famine and economical distress. There was also a general deterioration of economic and social life between 395/1004 and 411/1021 when most of the royal decrees (manshur) covering religious and social legislation were issued by the Imam. He had to take drastic measures by pressure of circumstances. On account of his extreme measures to meet the challenges, he became a controversial figure. Historians have held different opinions for him. Abul Fida, Ibn Athir and Ibn Khallikan depict him as an heretic and wily tyrant. Prof. Hitti, on the other hand, defends him, and writes in The Origins of the Druze People and Religion (New York, 1928, p. 27) that, "The fact that al-Hakim introduced many reforms regulating weights and measures, fought immorality with police ordinances ... amidst a hostile milieu indicates that he was not the kind of maniac or fool whose biography these early writers have left us."
Antaki and Ibn al-Sabi’s records discrediting Imam al-Hakim’s personality should be treated with a degree of caution since both historians were aggressive and lived in distant countries. Imam al- Hakim’s so called cruelty may have been the result of the circumstances rather than the acts of a sadist, or were perhaps exaggerated according to the view of the hostile historians. He ascended when he was still a child and witnessed fierce struggle and rivalry for power among the high officials of his state. This may have created a sense of insecurity, which led him to resort to so called cruelty as a tool of maintaining his power. Ibn al-Futi, who is quoted by Makrizi in Itti’az (p. 411) suggests that, "al-Hakim’s cruelty was both part of his policy to abolish the corruption resulting from his father’s great tolerance, and vengeance against those who oppose the Islamic law of the state."
Muhammad Abdullah al-Inan writes in his al-Hakim bi-Amrillah wa Asrar al-Dawa al- Fatimiya (Cairo, 1937, p. 173) that, "We are however unable to understand different political enigmas of al-Hakim, but it is beyond doubt that the ordinances and injunctions he imposed were not against the Islamic traditions to a little extent. These were also not the result of the whimsical thoughts, but based on the ordinary reformations of the state, therefore, the wisdom and strategy motivated behind them can never be ruled out." Dozy also writes in Essai sur l’historire de I’Islamism (Leiden, 1879, p. 148) that, "We fail to know the enigmatic personality of the Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim, therefore, it is not plausible to draw a conclusion that these were the outcome of whimsical thoughts."
The constant struggle for power between the two elements in the Fatimid’s army presented Imam al-Hakim with a very serious problem. His position was also threatened by the growing influence of mudabbir ad-dawla (the administrator of state affairs), better known as wasita (the mediator, executor of the Caliph’s orders or chief minister), simply an intermediary between the Imam and the people. Both Ibn Ammar and Barjawan had forcefully seized power and became themselves as wasitas, and misused the office. This was the first crack in the political structure. In the face of this trend, Imam al-Hakim’s attitude towards each successive wasita during the last twenty years of his Caliphate, was well and carefully planned to control his exercise of power. He did not abolish the institution of wasita, but restricted its power. Makrizi writes in Itti’az (p. 390) that, "After the appointment of al-Hussain bin Jawhar aswasita in 390/1000, he was ordered not to receive or deal with petitions in his own house or in public streets; those who had cases of complaints should be told to deliver them to him only at the office in the palace." Hussain bin Jawhar together with his secretary, Fahd bin Ibrahim, would come early to the palace, receive the petitions, study them and carry them to the Imam for final judgment. Except for Hussain bin Jawhar and Ali bin Falah, none of thewasita had a military background. None was powerful tribal chief or a chief of any element of the army. Most of them were from poor class. No wasita was allowed to remain in office for a long period. In the course of his twenty years of rule, Imam al-Hakim employed more than fifteen wasita, some held office for as little as ten days. Severity was the prominent feature in Imam al-Hakim’s attitude towards his wasitas, and the majority of those who occupied that office were executed. Thus, Ibn Hammad (d. 628/1230) writes in Akhbar al-Muluk Bani Ubayd wa Siyaratihim (p. 57) that al-Jarjara’i, a high official who had lost both hands by the command of Imam al-Hakim, would tell those who remarked upon such treatment that: "This was a punishment which I deserved for betraying amir al-mominin’s orders." According to Marshall Hodgson in The Venture of Islam (London, 1974, 2:27), "He was merciless to any of the great who, he thought, took advantage of their position."
Historians have generally shown Imam al-Hakim’s attitude as a tyrant and blood-thirsty. Such views, however, do not seem to be quite accurate, and many have been hastily arrayed without a thorough investigation. P.J. Vatikiotis writes in The Fatimid Theory of State (Lahore, 1957, p. 149), that, "These presentations have been hastily arrayed without a genuine investigation of al- Hakim’s reign." This part of Imam al-Hakim’s policy cannot be described as blood-thirsty or insane. Imam al-Hakim was extremely engaged in a deadly struggle of retaining the Fatimid Caliphate. He was not fighting only the secular tendencies of political power groups, but also attempting to rally the fast disintegrating Fatimid ranks in the face of impending danger.
It is a common method, which most rulers used to adopt to silence opposition and prevent threats to their own powers. There is no evidence suggesting that, at any time, Imam al-Hakim ordered the execution of someone just for the sake of killing. His bursts of killing, as M.G.S. Hodgson says in "al-Darazi and Hamza in the Origin of the Druze Religion (JAOS, 82, 1962, p. 14), "were most obviously turned against the great and the proud, the holders of positions and those ambitious to be such." There were more precisely against those from whom Imam al-Hakim anticipated danger or considered a threat to his power. A comparative study of his attitude towards qadi al-qudat (chief judge) with the manner in which he treated the wasita and military chiefs illustrates this point. It was only qadis who opposed his policy who were executed; others were treated quite normally. During his entire reign, Imam al-Hakim employed five persons to that post of qadi al-qudat. Muhammad bin Noman died in 389/998 and Imam al-Hakim himself led the prayer at his funeral. His successor, Hussain bin Noman served until 395/1004 when he was executed after being found guilty of theft. Muhammad bin Yousuf al-Kindi (d. 330/951) writes in Kitab al-Umra wa’l Kitab al-Qudat (London, 1912, p. 608) that, "Hussain bin Noman stole twenty thousand dinars from an orphan whose father entrusted the money to him. His trial was personally conducted by al-Hakim." Abdul Aziz bin Noman succeeded until 399/1008 when he was dismissed, and two years later executed for opposing Imam al-Hakim and supporting Hussain bin Jawhar. Malik bin Sa’id al-Fariqi served for 6 years, 9 months and 10 days (399/1008 to 405/1014) and was executed for opposing Imam al-Hakim’s policy for imposing Islamic laws. In 405/1014, Imam al-Hakim appointed Muhammad bin Abi’l Awwam as qadi al-qudat and Khatgin as a da’i al-duat, and both remained in office until the end of Imam al- Hakim’s rule because of their loyalty with the rules imposed.
Barjawan was able to overcome the chronic problems in Syria, and appointment of Jaysh ibn Samsama as a governor general and the commander of the Fatimid forces, indicates a shrewd policy. Jaysh was a powerful Maghriba leader and was also a popular figure among the Mashriqa. Initially, he had four major problems to be confronted when he reached Syria: the rebellion in Tyre, the rebellion of Mufraj bin Dagfal, the unrest in Damascus and the Byzantine invasions into the Fatimid territory. Jaysh at first moved into the action to subdue the rebellion in Tyre, an important port on the Mediterranean coast; whose inhabitants, supported by the Byzantines, had rose against the Fatimid suzerainty during the clash between Barjawan and Ibn Ammar. Their leader, a sailor called Ullaqah had declared Trye an independent, and issued new coinage with the slogan, "Dignity and plenty instead of humility and poverty, Amir Ullaqah" (uzzun ba’da faqah al- amir Ullaqah). Jaysh appointed Abu Abdullah al-Hussain and Ibn Nasir ad-Dawla al-Hamdani to lead the expedition against Trye, and himself stayed with the rest of the forces in Palestine, preparing another expedition against Mufraj bin Dagfal. He also ordered the governors of Tripoli and Sidon to join together with their warships in the forthcoming fighting against Tyre. In the ensuing battle, the Fatimid forces ravaged the Byzantine ships, and at length, Tyre fell before the onslaught of the Fatimid forces. The Fatimid troops entered the city and declared immunity (aman) and safe-conduct for all who remained in their homes. Ullaqah was arrested and sent to Cairo.
After suppression of rebellion in Tyre, Jaysh proceeded towards Palestine, where Mufraj bin Dagfal was plundering the towns and attacking the pilgrim caravans. When confronted with the big army of Jaysh, Mufraj capitulated and sent a delegation, asking for safe-conduct and promised to advance his loyalty to the Fatimids. Jaysh, who was pressed by more serious problems in northern Syria, pardoned him and withdrew his army to the north.
Jaysh thence advanced towards Damascus, and as soon as he entered the city, according to Ibn Athir (9: 50), he declared that his prime objective was to wage war against the Byzantine and establish peace and security in Damascus. He also announced the death penalty for any one, whether his soldiers or other citizens, who proved guilty of disturbing the peace in the city. Jaysh then moved towards Hims, where the governor of Tripoli and his troops and a number of volunteers, augmented Jaysh’s army in his fight against the Byzantines, who had besieged Afamiya at that time.
Jaysah arrived at Afamiya during the hour when the city was in great distress and about to fall into the hands of Byzantines. In the ensuing battle lasted for a few days, Jaysh faced defeat in the beginning. In the interim, a Muslim soldier managed to kill the Byzantine commander, causing demoralization among the Christian troops. The Byzantine troops were defeated, who took wild flight from the field. Jaysh followed the defeated Byzantines as far as Antioch and besieged the city for a few days, but he at once lifted the siege and returned to Damascus.
It must be remembered that Ibn Ammar had instituted a group of the young men (ahdath) from among the Maghriba in Damascus against the Mashriqa. The Ahdath, an urban militia, commanded by al-Rais (master) or al-Rais al-Bilad, whose influence exceeded that of the qadi. As armed and pugnacious men of the native-born population, the Ahdath had constituted in face of the political authorities. The Ahadath had assumed the principal power and were the main cause of the troubles in Damascus. Jaysah tried to cope with these elements and finally decided to eliminate them once and for all. During his early arrival in Damasus, he delayed his plan owing to the raids of the Byzantines on northern Syria. After suppression of the Byzantine influence in Tyre and the troubles created by Mufraj bin Dagfal, he returned to Damascus to strike a final blow on the Ahdath. According to Qalanisi (p. 51), he invited the chiefs of Ahdath to his camp, which he had pitched outside the city, and had them killed. He at once besieged the city and sent his troops inside to search and kill the remaining ashes of Ahdath. This operation clean-up cost the death toll of 1200 persons and brought fear to the inhabitants, but Jaysh declared for their safe-conduct and promised security and peace under the suzerainty of the Fatimids. This was of course a bloody operation, but at the same time it was a last resort and the only effective solution to solve the problems of Damascus, where peace was restored for a long time. During the first three years of Imam al-Hakim’s rule, two major anti-Fatimid uprisings occurred in Damascus. It was the untiring efforts of Jaysh ibn Samsama that these rebellions had been subdued in 388/998. Imam al-Hakim’s aim was to win the loyalty, therefore, he paid due attention to the welfare of Damascus and appointed considerable governors, some of whom were recalled after only a few months. Thus, 21 governors are reported to have been appointed in Syria during the 22 years of Imam al- Hakim’s rule. He did not hesitate to dismiss any governor who exceeded his authority or caused discontent among the inhabitants.
Jaysh ibn Samsama died on 390/1000 at Damascus. His son went to Cairo with a paper on which his father had written his will and a detailed statement of all his property: all this, he declared, belonged to Imam al-Hakim; his children had no rights. The property thus valued was estimated at 200,000 pieces of gold. His son brought all this before the Imam, who said, "I have read your father’s will and the statement of the money and goods of which he has disposed by his will. Take it, and enjoy it in tranquility and for your happiness."
Imam al-Hakim had also contemplated to extend his authority to Aleppo, the greatest centre of northern Syria. The last Hamdanid ruler, Sa’id ad-Dawla had been killed in 392/1002 by the conspiracy of his minister, called Lulu; who abolished the Hamdanid dynasty in Aleppo and established his own. The real power behind Aleppo was however the Byzantines, who used to be called when their help needed to the rulers. Thus, Imam al-Hakim made a non-aggression pact (hudna) with Basil II, the emperor of Byzantine and weakened the reliance of Aleppo on Byzantine help.
There appears different of views as to the negotiation of non-aggression pact (hudna) between the Muslim and Christian empires. Ibn Qalanisi (p. 54) writes that in 390/1000, Barjawan moved first by sending a friendly letter through his Christian secretary, Fahd bin Ibrahim al-Katib, expressing the Fatimid desire for the pact. Antaki (p. 184) however states that the Byzantine emperor, Basil II took the initiative by deputing his two envoys to negotiate peace with the Fatimids. In sum, the agreement was initially for a period of ten years, but it remained enforced through out Imam al-Hakim’s period, and the relations between them were strengthened. Envoys and presents were exchanged between the two rulers and trade and commercial activities continued uninterrupted except for a brief period.
The events which occurred in Aleppo after the death of its ruler, Lulu in 399/1008 facilitated Imam al-Hakim’s policy and assisted him to achieve his goal. Lulu’s son Mansur, succeeding his father, was faced with numerous enemies, including Abul Hayja, the Hamdanid prince who came from Byzantium with Byzantine support to restore the rule of his ancestors. Mansur received investiture from Imam al-Hakim and virtually became a Fatimid vassal. The Imam supported Mansur against Abul Hayja, who had taken field and defeated.
In 406/1016, Mansur was defeated in a battle by Saleh bin Mirdas, the chief of the Banu Kilab. Mansur took refuge with the Byzantines after leaving a citadel under the control of a certain Fath, who was secretly in contact with Imam al-Hakim. Thus, the Imam granted the title of Asad ad- Dawla (lion of the state) to Saleh bin Mirdas and Mubarak ad-Dawla (blessed of the state) to Fath. On the other hand, Imam al-Hakim commanded his troops encamped in Syria to move towards Aleppo to prevent any pact between Saleh and Fath against the Fatimids. In 407/1017, the first Fatimid governor appointed by Imam al-Hakim entered Aleppo, called Fatik, bearing the title of Aziz ad-Dawla. Ibn al-Adim (d. 660/1262) writes in Zubdat al-Halab fi Tarikh Halab(Damascus, 1951, 1:214) that Imam al-Hakim issued an edict addressing to the inhabitants of Aleppo that, "When Amir al-mominin learned of the tyranny and ill treatment you suffered from those in powers, burdening you with taxes and harsh imposts out of all proportion to the ways of Islam, he, may God strengthen his power, ordered supplies to be sent to you from the state’s stores and to exempt you from the kharaj until the year 407. By this you will know that the light of righteousness has risen and the darkness of tyranny has been dispelled."
The Byzantine emperor however opposed the Fatimid foothold in Aleppo, but did not break the non-aggression pact. He put restrictions upon the trade with Aleppo and cemented his close ties with the Mirdasids in order to employ them against Fatik. The remote distance of Cairo, the threats and offers of his Byzantine contacts and his personal ambition, made it easy for Fatik to show his back to the Fatimids. Soon afterwards, Fatik began to rule as an independent ruler in Aleppo and dismissed the officials appointed by Imam al-Hakim and employed men of his own choice.
Imam al-Hakim realized that a demonstration of the Fatimid arm forces was necessary to maintain his authority in Aleppo, therefore, he ordered his governor in Syria to prepare for a quick expedition against Fatik. On the other side, the troops of the Byzantine also came into action and started moving from the north to the south to support their interests. It was only the sudden death of Imam al-Hakim that had prevented the two empires from breaking peace which had lasted between them for more than 20 years.
Imam al-Muizz had vested Buluggin bin Ziri (d. 373/984) with the governorship of all the Fatimid dominions in the Maghrib except for the Kalbid Sicily and Tripoli in 361/972. Later on, Buluggin asked Imam al-Aziz to give him rule over Tripoli as well. His request was granted and from 365/975, Tripoli began to be ruled by the Zirids. Buluggin appointed Tamsulat bin Bakkar as the amir of Tripoli, who governed the province for 20 years. In 386/996, after the death of Mansur, the second Zirid ruler, the relation between Tamsulat and Badis (d. 406/1016), the third Zirid ruler were strained. Tamsulat wrote to Cairo, asking Barjawan to send a new amir for Tripoli. Barjawan’s error was that without the consent of Badis, he appointed Yanis as the amir of Tripoli in 388/998, who was then the amir of Barqa. Badis wrote a letter to Yanis, asking for an explanation of his move from Barqa to Tripoli, but he received no satisfactory reply. Realizing the danger that Yanis represented, Badis sent his troops into battle against him. In the ensuing battle, Yanis was killed and his forces retreated to Tripoli, where they barricaded themselves awaiting help from Cairo.
The above military actions of Barjawan in Tripoli supported no decree from Imam al-Hakim. It however affected the relations between the Fatimids and the Zirids. In addition, Tripoli, over which the dispute had begun, was occupied neither by the Fatimids nor by the Zirids, but it came in the hands of the enemy of both, i.e., the Banu Zanata. Fulful (d. 402/1011), the chief of Zanata tribe had taken an opportunity and proceeded towards Tripoli. He entered the city and declared his support against the Zirids and proclaimed his loyalty to the Umayyad of Spain.
Hence, the Fatimids lost Tripoli for about ten years (390-400/999-1009). After restoration of peace in Egypt, Imam al-Hakim turned his attention towards Tripoli. He dispatched his forces at the command of Yahya al-Andulusi as a new amir of Tripoli, and commanded Raydan at Tripoli to give Yahya a sum of money for expenses. Raydan, who most probably appropriated the money, instead gave Yahya a signed order to collect money from Barqa. When Yahya reached Barqa, he found the state treasury depleted. Most of the soldiers in his troops belonged to Banu Qorra, whom he had promised generous payment. Thus, Yahya faced difficulties in the field. Banu Qorra not only deserted Yahya, but they also raided his camps in angry and pillaged whatever they found and returned to their territory. Henceforward, Yahya entered Tripoli with the remaining troops. He was overpowered by the Zanata chief, Fulful, who humiliated him and took control of Tripoli, proclaiming his loyalty to the Umayyad of Spain. On other side, Imam al-Hakim did not send any reinforcement to regain Tripoli, and as a result, the Fatimids lost their suzerainty in Maghrib. Their relations with the Zirids also deteriorated, and the Sanhaja tribe ruled there independently.
In 395/1004, Imam al-Hakim faced the most serious challenge to his authority against the rebellion that rocked the foundation of his state. This was the rebellion of Abu Raqwa, an Umayyad prince who united the forces of Berbers of Zanata with those of the Arab tribe of Banu Qorra to lead them against the Fatimids. The word raqwa means leather bag, in which travellers, especially the Sufis, carried water during journey. He was an Umayyad prince from the line of Marwan bin Hakam. In his twenties, he fled from Spain and travelled to Maghrib, Egypt, Yamen, Mecca and Syria; testing the possibility of creating a group strong enough to support the
Umayyad cause. At length, he succeeded to generate a large following in Maghrib and proclaimed himself as an amir.
Besides the rooted opposition of Zanata and the dissatisfaction of Banu Qorra with the Fatimids, the economic factors also appear to have been the main cause behind the rebellion of Abu Raqwa. The province of Barqa in Maghrib was very poor, and its treasury was even insufficient to supply the needs of the small army which Imam al-Hakim sent in 391/1000 to restore Fatimid suzerainty in Tripoli. Its commercial life was limited and its income depended upon its limited agricultural output. The whole of Maghrib preceding the rebellion was caught with economic crisis, resulting a sort of catastrophe in 395/1004. Ibn Idhari (d. 712/1312) writes in Akhbar al-Andalus wa’l Maghrib (1:256) that, "In 395/1004, there was a catastrophe in Africa. The poor died and the money of the rich vanished. Prices rose and food became impossible to find. The people of Badia left their homes. Houses became empty and there was no one to occupy them. With all this there was a plague of cholera." Abu Raqwa understood the difficulties of the tribesmen, their overwhelming desire to solve their problems, and therefore, he concentrated his effort to this point. The situation turned in his favour as an effective tool of his rebellion. When the people agreed to follow his rebellious leadership, the first pact he executed with the people concerning the booty and gains resulting from war. It was resolved to divide the booty into three shares: one for each tribe and one third to be retained under Abu Raqwa’s control in order to form a treasury to help during the war. He also promised to give the chiefs the palaces and houses of the Fatimid state in Cairo and other fertile regions in Egypt.
After being assured himself of sufficient support from the two principal tribes, Abu Raqwa canvassed neighboring districts, where he delivered speeches about Islam in a revolutionary manner. The tribesmen were fascinated by his eloquence, and assembled under his leadership against the Fatimids. Sandal, the Fatimid chief of Barqa immediately reported to Imam al-Hakim and asked permission to campaign against him. According to Ibn Athir (9:82), "Al-Hakim, who apparently did not realize the urgency of the problem, neither gave permission nor sent help but recommended diplomacy, not militant stance as a solution." Sandal’s action failed, and Abu Raqwa with his troops swiftly marched to invade the city of Barqa. Sandal and his troops met them outside the city, and were subdued after a fierce fighting. Sandal retreated and barricaded himself inside the city. Sandal also contacted Ibn Taybun, the chief of the Berber tribe of Lawata, who came to the rescue and forced Abu Raqwa to break the siege, but failed to defeat him. Abu Raqwa then inflicted a heavy defeat on Lawata’s forces and got the loss of many fighters including Ibn Taybun. The inhabitants of Barqa with their chief Sandal took advantage of Abu Raqwa’s temporary withdrawal from their city, and strongly fortified its walls, digging huge trenches around them and storing as much food and supplies as they could. When Abu Raqwa returned to the siege, he found the city in a much stronger position to defend than before. Several months of siege, he failed to convince Sandal to surrender. Meanwhile, Imam al-Hakim sent an army of five thousand men under the leadership of Yanal to relieve Barqa. Yanal had to cross considerable stretch of desert before he reached Barqa, and Abu Raqwa sent a body of cavalry across the route to fill in the wells. He then waited at the point farthest from Egypt to meet Yanal’s forces, who arrived tired, exhausted and thirsty. Yanal was defeated and was scourged to death. Abu Raqwa sacked his all equipments and supplies, and returned to Barqa. Sandal, together with his family, fled to Cairo. In the month of Zilhaja, 395/October, 1005, Abu Raqwa captured Barqa, and declared himself amir al-mominin. This was struck on the coinage too, and the khutba was read in his name.
Al-Musabbihi (d. 420/1029) writes that Abu Raqwa’s supporters regarded him as a caliph. About a year after his occupation of Barqa, Abu Raqwa was driven out by the threat of famine and plague. He and his supporters left Barqa as if they were migrating from one land to another, and proceeded towards Alexandria. Imam al-Hakim began his preparations to quell the rebellion, and appointed Fazal bin Saleh to arrange a large force to meet Abu Raqwa in the field. Meanwhile, a report came of Abu Raqwa’s movement towards Alexandria. Fazal sent a detachment at the command of Qabil to intercept the rebels, and prevent them from reaching the city. The two armies met in Dhat al-Hamam in Alexandria, where Abu Raqwa won a victory over Qabil. Thence, Abu Raqwa resumed his march towards Alexandria. He besieged it for several months, provoking extreme alarms in Cairo, and a large force had been dispatched from Cairo in command of Fazal bin Saleh. Abu Raqwa failed to capture Alexandria, so he turned towards Cairo. He reached at Fayyum and camped to plan the final blow against the Fatimids. Imam al-Hakim raised reinforcement of four thousand horsemen at the command of Ali bin Falah to Jiza to prevent Abu Raqwa’s troops from raiding areas close to Cairo. Knowing this, Abu Raqwa sent a division of his troops which ambushed Ali bin Falah, killed many of his men. Skirmishes between the two forces continued until they finally met at Ra’s al-Barqa in Fayyum district.
It should be noted that a secret pact between Abu Raqwa and the Bedouin chiefs in the Fatimid forces had stipulated that when he would attack, they would withdraw from Fazal bin Saleh’s side to create fear and confusion. Fazal was fully aware of this, and on the day of the battle, he summoned all the Bedouin chiefs to his tent. When the attack took place, the Bedouin chiefs, being the prisoners virtually in Fazal’s tent, were unable to play their part in accord with the pact with Abu Raqwa, and their troops, unaware of their masters’ pact with Abu Raqwa, fought fiercely. Expecting a victory, the troops of Abu Raqwa were easily ambushed and defeated, and he himself fled to the south, and then to Nubia, a large country stretching from Aswan to Khartoum, and from Red Sea to the Libyan desert Abu Raqwa reached at Dumqula, the capital of Nubia, where he pretended to be an ambassador of the Fatimid at the court of the Nubian king. Fazal followed close behind to the Nubian frontier and managed to find out Abu Raqwa, and took him prisoner in 397/1004. He was brought to Cairo, and was paraded through the streets. Ibn Qalanisi (d. 555/1160) writes in Tarikh-i Dimashq (p. 65) that Abu Raqwa had written a poetical letter to Imam al-Hakim, begging him for mercy, but the Imam refused pardon. But al-Musabbihi (d. 420/1029) as quoted by Makrizi in Itti’az (p. 396) however refutes it and suggests that Imam al- Hakim intended to pardon Abu Raqwa as Imam al-Hakim had personally told him while talking about Abu Raqwa, "I did not want to kill him and what happened to him was not of my choosing." Ibn Athir (9:84) writes that, "Abu Raqwa died from humiliation and the cruel treatment during the parade, but was not executed." It transpires that Imam al-Hakim did not wish to execute him and was waiting the termination of the parade to grant him mercy, but he was died. In 398/1005, the Nile rising only 16 yards and 16 fingers flow with the result that there was a great rise in prices and hardship. The single bread (al-khubz) became so dear that it could be obtained with great difficulty. It was followed by disease and plague together with malnutrition. Imam al-Hakim immediately exempted the taxes and formulated strict measures to cope with the situation and instituted death penalty for those who inflated prices or hoarded commodities, which produced the desired effect very soon.
Created by Arab tribes in Palestine, headed by Mufraj bin Dagfal al-Jarrah Taiy, Imam al-Hakim had to face another rebellion hatched in 397/1004, which lasted for about three years. This was the rebellion of the tribe of Banu Jarrah, a part of the Yameni tribe, called Taiy, who had settled in southern parts of Palestine in the Balqa region. Unlike the revolt of Abu Raqwa, Mufraj’s rising was not influenced by religious teaching, nor was it a serious threat to the Fatimids. He began to plunder the pilgrims, and planned to occupy Palestine to establish his family rule. In 400/1009, Imam al-Hakim appointed his general Yarkhtagin to Aleppo to suppress the rebellions, but Mufraj intercepted him at Askalan and raided. Mufraj sacked his materials and captured him. The rebels also occupied Ramla. Mufraj went to Hijaz and swore allegiance to Hasan bin Jafar (d. 430/1038), surnamed Abul Fatuh as an amir, and brought him to Ramla.
Thus, Mufraj dominated both in Palestine and Hijaz, and started coinage in the name of Abul Fatuh. Imam was much alarmed by these events in his state and tried to suppress the rebellion before it assumed serious proportions. He wrote a letter of remonstration to Mufraj and offered him a sum of 50,000dinars in return for the safety of Yarkhtagin. Imam al-Hakim also threatened him with severe consequences if he harmed his general. Soon afterwards, the Fatimid general Yarkhtagin had been executed.
To discredit Abul Fatuh in Mecca and regain Hijaz, Imam al-Hakim communicated with another in Mecca, known as Ibn Abu Tayyib and helped him, resulting re-occupation of Hijaz by the Fatimid. Imam al-Hakim wrote to Mufraj, promising him estates and other gifts if he would cease from rebellion. Mufraj resolved to abandon Abul Fatuh, who returned to Hijaz. Meanwhile, Mufraj accepted the offer of Imam al-Hakim and took his money. He however retained his mastery over Palestine and continued to menace the peace and security. The pilgrims from Egypt could no longer travel to Hijaz to perform hajj as their caravans were used to be sacked. Imam al- Hakim was impelled to take field against Mufraj. In 404/1013, he sent 20,000 horsemen under Ali bin Falah, whom he invested the title qutb ad-dawla (magnate of the state), and ordered the chief of Damascus to join the campaign. Meanwhile, Mufraj died and his supporters scattered. Ali bin Falah captured Ramla and restored law and order.
After suppression of revolts, Imam al-Hakim’s administration became very liberal. The rebellions and the risings during his period had badly shaken the commercial life in Egypt by the fluctuation of the dhiram. In 395/1004, the market value of one dinar became equal to 26 dhirams. In 397/1006, the same problem occurred and one dinar valued equal to 34 dhirams. To cope with the monetary problem, new dhirams had been minted for circulation and the old ones withdrawn. The official value of a new dhiram was fixed at the rate 18 pieces to the dinar. The people were given three days to exchange the coins. This method controlled the monetary system to great extent.
In Egypt, the prices of merchandise, like units of measures and weight were not under direct control of the rule. This resulted price inflation and the people were at the mercy of the shopkeepers and merchants, profiteering high prices, therefore, Imam al-Hakim stabilized the units of weight and measure and fixed the price under government control. In 395/1004, an ordinance was issued to this effect, commanding the stabilization of the units and threatening those who deliberately mishandled them. In 397/1006, the prices of certain commodities were fixed. Severe punishment was inflicted upon the shopkeepers and merchants, who infringed these rules and also paraded in the streets who disobeyed these ordinances.
The relaxation in tax appears to have been an important feature in Imam al-Hakim’s reformations. During the years of low Nile, which affected agriculture, the land-owners were exempted from paying imposts and taxes. Sometimes, certain areas were declared tax-free zones and at other times it covered the whole country. All the important commodities were relaxed from taxation along with local industries, such as silk, soap and refreshments.
The agriculture in Egypt used to be a target of the scanty of water during bad Nile and the loss of cattle from epidemics, therefore, Imam al-Hakim had taken important measures to reduce the problem as much as possible. He ordered water courses and troughs to be cleaned regularly. In 403/1013, he expended 15,000 dinars for the cleaning of the canal of Alexandria. He also employed Ibn al-Haytham, a famous engineer from Basra to solve the problem of low Nile. To ensure the supply of cattle for agriculture purpose, Imam al-Hakim ordered that cows should not be slaughtered except on occasions of religious festivals or if they were unfit to pull the plough. Ibn Taghri Birdi (d. 874/1470) writes in al-Nujum al-Zahira fi Muluk Misr wa al-Qahira(Cairo, 1929, 4:252) that, "His food laws like the slaughtering of safe and healthy cows, which was limited to perpetuate the cattle breed, and the killing of all dogs in the country were promulgated for sanitary purposes."
Imam al-Hakim also granted most of the state land to his subjects and it was not only officials and friends who benefited the facility, but any person who petitioned for his aids. He also curtailed the expenses of the palaces and confiscated most of the properties of his family members, notably of his mother and sisters and added them to the state treasury in 399/1009.
Imam al-Hakim’s forbidding extravagant spending in entertainments when the Nile was exceptionally low and his fight against profiteering from high prices during the famine crisis are examples of sensible legislation for the public welfare. Ibn Taghri Birdi also discusses at some length Imam al-Hakim’s charitable and university endowments; his leniency with taxation, depending on the ability of people and commensurate with the prosperity of Egypt over a particular year (op. cit., 4:180).
There are also other noteworthy reforms of Imam al-Hakim in Egypt. "Nudity in public baths" says Makrizi in his Itti’az al-Hunafa (Cairo, 1948, p. 391), "was prohibited and people were ordered to wear towel around the waist." In 397/1006, Makrizi adds, a decree (manshur) was read, commanding the fixation of prices of bread, meat and other commodities. According to The Renaissance of Islam (Patna, 1937, p. 399), "The Caliph al-Hakim, who sought to restore the original Islam, enacted stringent measures against wine-drinking. When his Christian physician, Ibn Anastas prescribed wine and music for his melancholy, the people reverted with joy to the old vice. But the physician soon died and the Caliph became a yet greater opponent of alcohol. He even forbade the sale of raisins and honey and destroyed the casks wherein wine was kept."
Makrizi further writes in his al-Khitat (2:285) that, "He enforced an Islamic law forbidding the making, selling and drinking of wine. A total and complete enforcement of this law never exercised by any Muslim caliph but Imam al-Hakim was determined to enforce it." In 402/1012, Imam al-Hakim had forbidden the use of beer under a decree (manshur), and according to Ibn Khallikan (3:450), "The usual law against wine was strictly enforced. Now he forbade the sale of dried raisins because they were used by some for making wine. He forbade their importation into the country, and ordered all found in stores to be destroyed, in consequence of which some 2340 boxes of dried raisins were burned, the value being put at 500 pieces of gold. He next forbade the sale of fresh grapes, exceeding four pounds at a time; in any markets, and strict prohibition was made against squeezing out the juice. The grapes found on sale were confiscated, and either trodden in the street or thrown into the Nile. The vine at Gizeh was cut down and oxen employed to tread the fruit into the mire. Orders were issued that the same was to be done throughout the provinces. But honey as well as grapes can be used in preparing fermented liquor, so the Caliph’s seal was affixed to the stores of honey at Gizeh, and some 5051 jars of honey were broken and their contents poured into the Nile, as well as 51 cruises of date honey."
De Lacy O’Leary quotes an example in this context in A Short History of the Fatimid Khilafat (London, 1923, pp. 165-6) that a certain merchant had all his money invested in the prohibited fruit, and lost everything by the seizure and destruction of his goods. He appeared before the qadi and summoned Imam al-Hakim to appear and make good the destruction caused by his officials. The Caliph appeared to answer the charge preferred against him, the qaditreating him like any other citizen against whom complaint had been lodged. The merchant asked for compensation to the amount of 1000 pieces of gold. Imam al-Hakim in his defence said that the fruits destroyed were intended to be used in the preparation of drinks forbidden by the law of Holy Koran, but that if the merchant will answer that they were not intended for this purpose, but only to be eaten he was willing to pay their price. The merchant swore that the fruit was intended only for eating. He then received the money and gave the Caliph a formal receipt. When the case was concluded, the qadi, who had upto this point treated both parties as ordinary suitors, rose from his seat and gave the Caliph the salute customary at court. Imam al-Hakim admired the qadi’s conduct, and made him valuable presents in recognition of his treatment of the case.
The historians concur that the life of frivolity in Egypt seems to have been against the principles of Imam al-Hakim, and according to Antaki (p. 202), "He banned the profession of singers and dancers in Egypt." He also forbade unveiled women to follow a funeral, prohibiting the weeping and howling and procession of mourning women with drums and pipes. Thus, the tearing of clothes, the blackening of faces and clipping of hair were forbidden and women, employed for lamenting the dead, were imprisoned. O’Leary writes that, "No doubt the nocturnal festivities of Cairo, well suited to the pleasure loving character of the Egyptians, led to many abuses, and so in 391/1001 a strict order was issued, forbidding women to go out of doors by night, and a little later this was followed by a general order prohibiting the opening of the shops by night." (op. cit., p. 133)
Imam al-Hakim always protected the Islamic interest like his ancestors. Ibn al-Muqaffa in Tarikh Batarikat al-Kanisa al-Misriyya (2:125) and Bar Hebraeus in Chronographia (London, 1923, p. 184) state that Imam al-Hakim threatened those who did not follow Islam and honoured those who did. Ibn Khallikan (3:451) writes that, "In 408/1017, al-Hakim forbade the kissing of the ground in his presence and annulled the prayer made for him in the khutba and in the writings addressed to him. Instead of that prayer, they were ordered to employ these words: Salutation to the Commander of the Faithful."
In Egypt, Imam al-Hakim thus is reported to have removed the differences of the Shi’a and Sunni Muslims. Ibn Khallikan (3:450) writes that, "He gave orders that the persons who uttered curses against the Companions should be flogged and paraded ignominiously through the streets." Antaki (p. 195) writes that, "He publicly praised the Companions of the Prophet and commanded his subjects to do the same." In sum, the Sunni and Shi’a enjoyed toleration and equal rights. Many Sunni jurists were also employed in the Dar al-Hikmah and the appointment of a Sunni qadi, called Abul Abbas bin Awam Hanbali is best example in this context. In 400/1009, Imam al-Hakim also established a school of law offering instructions in the Malikite rite, whose incharge was Abu Bakr Antaki.
Imam al-Hakim restored peace and prosperity in the country, attracting the Muslims of Baghdad and Cordova to settle in Cairo. He brought the Fatimid rule to its zenith. Dr. G. Kheirallah writes in Druze History (Detroit, 1952, p.160) that, "During the life and reign of al-Hakim, the Fatimite Egypt reached its highest position of influence and prestige - no other state could then vie with Egypt for power, wealth or enlightenment; the Arabian art and crafts were at their zenith, and affluence and ease became the lot of the Egyptians". According to Antaki (d. 458/1065) in Tarikh-i Antaki (Beirut, 1909, p. 206), “Al-Hakim provided such kind of justice that his subjects had never known before. They slept in their homes secured in the possession of their properties." Ibn Ayyas (d. 930/1524) writes in Bada’i al-Zuhur (Cairo, 1896, 1:52) that, "His justice became the favourite theme of both writers of story and myth as well as poets. Much of their works, praising and picturing al-Hakim as the champion of justice, shows the impression his rule left on people’s imaginations." Al-Hakim adopted severity in observance of Islamic law, which enormously helped to reduce crimes. Ibn al-Zafir (d. 613/1216) writes in al-Duwal al- Munqatia (p. 59) that, "At times of prayers, the shopkeepers would have their shops open and unguarded without fear of theft." Ibn Ayyas (op. cit., p. 54) reports a story of a man who lost his purse full of money in the street of Cairo, and when, after few days, he passed the same street, he found it untouched. None dare to touch it for fear of al-Hakim’s punishment. There is an Egyptian fragment of Hebrew writing, evidently from Imam al-Hakim’s period, praising and eulogizing his unparalled justice with sincerity, vide Dr. A. Neubauer’s Egyptien Fragment (FQR, IX, pp. 24- 6).
Dr. Sadik Assad writes in The Reign of al-Hakim bi-Amrallah (Beirut, 1974, p. 86) that, "Al- Hakim also built more mosques than any of his predecessors and perhaps, more than any other Muslim caliph." He extended his benefactions to all the existing mosques, and was responsible for the building of many more. The mosque near the Bab al-Futuh, commenced by his father in 380/990 had been left incomplete. Al-Hakim completed it and made it the second congregational mosque of Cairo, known as al-Anwar. Making no distinction between public treasury and personal funds, he made lavish gifts to the mosques of Fustat and Cairo. He furnished the mosque known as Hakim’s Mosque with lamps, mats and other requirements at a cost of 5000 pieces of gold. He presented to the old mosque at Fustat a candelabrum with 1200 lights which weighed 100,000 dhirams. So huge was his grant that in carrying it to the mosque, the road had to be dug, and the upper part of the door had to be removed to carry it into the mosque. This present was taken in a procession with the commander-in-chief in the front with drums and trumpets and amidst shouts of tehlil (no might save God) and takbir (God is Great). He also presented the mosque 1290 copies of Holy Koran, some of which were written in letters of gold. He also built a huge mosque near the Muqattam hills and presented to it carpets, curtains and lamps. He also furnished various mosques the items like the copies of the Koran, silver lamps, mats, curtains etc." Makrizi also writes in Itti’az (p. 496) that Imam al-Hakim generously allocated 9220 dhirams each month for the upkeep of the mosques.
The Abbasid caliph Kadir billah (d. 422/1031) got his rule dwindling before his eyes. He saw Baghdad yielding its position of prestige as the seat of culture and science to Cairo, and he found himself a virtual prisoner of the Buwahids, while the Fatimid Imam al-Hakim was ruling powerfully and absolutely. Ibn al-Jawzi (d. 597/1200) writes in al-Muntazam fi Tarikh al-Muluk (Hyderabad, 1840, 7:237) that, "The Shi’a of Iraq had looked to al-Hakim as their desired Caliph in 398/1008 in Baghdad, and during a quarrel with the Sunnis, they shouted slogans, Ya Hakim, Ya Mansur in favour of al-Hakim." In 401/1010, Mutamad ad-Dawla Qirwash bin Maqallid (d. 444/1052), the chief of the Uqayl tribe and governor of Mosul, Madain, Anbar and Kufa acknowledged the Fatimid Caliphate instead of the Abbasids, and started the Fatimid khutba and coinage. In the same year, Ali bin Mazid Asadi (d. 408/1018), the chief of the Asad tribe also proclaimed his loyalty to Imam al-Hakim and had the Fatimid khutba read in Hilla and the districts he governed.
The Abbasid caliph Kadir billah alarmed over the prosperity of Egypt and growing influence of the Fatimids inside his empire, therefore, he attempted to combat with Imam al-Hakim by another cowardice tool. He gathered a number of Shi’a and Sunni theologians and jurists to his court in 402/1011 and ordered them to prepare a forged manifesto that the Fatimid claim of Alid descent was false. Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) writes in Muqaddimah (tr. Franz Rosenthal, London, 1958, 1:45-6) that, "The judges in Baghdad eventually prepared an official statement denying the Alid origin (of the Fatimids). The statement was witnessed by a number of prominent men, among them the Sharif ar-Radi and his brother al-Murtada, and Ibn al-Bathawi. Among the religious scholars were Abu Hamid al-Isfarayini, al-Quduri, as-Saymari, Ibn al-Akfani, al-Abiwardi, the Shi’a jurist Abu Abdullah bin an-Numan, and other prominent Muslims in Baghdad. The event took place one memorable day in the year 402/1011 in the time of (the Abbasid caliph) al-Qadir. The testimony was based upon heresy, on what people in Baghdad generally believed. Most of them were partisans of the Abbasids who attacked the Alid origin (of the Fatimids). The historians reported the informations as they had heard it. They handed down to us just as they remembered it. However, the truth lies behind it. Al-Mutadid’s letter concerning Ubaydallah (al- Mahdi) to Aghlabid in al-Qayrawan and the Midrarid in Sijilmasah, testifies most truthfully to the correctness of the origin (of the Fatimids) and proves it most clearly. Al-Mutadid was better qualified than anyone else to speak about the genealogy of the Prophet’s house." Ibn Taghri Birdi (d. 874/1470) writes in his al-Nujum al-Zahira fi Muluk wa al-Qahira (Cairo, 1929, 4:236) that, "The Abbasid caliph hired theologians and paid them large sum of money to write books condemning the Fatimid cause and their doctrine." We have three accredited Sunni historians, Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406), Abul Fida (1273-1331) and Makrizi (1363-1442), who were not under the pressure or influence of either the Abbasids or the Fatimids. These historians concur that the Fatimids of Egypt were the direct descendants of Ali and Fatima. The Abbasid false propaganda, however, discrediting the Fatimid lineage has been falsified through accredited sources and arguments.
Amid the surging splendour, Imam al-Hakim emerges as an unusual personality judged by any standard. He founded Dar al-Hikmah (House of Wisdom), also known as Dar al-Ilm (House of Knowledge) in 395/1004. The majalis al-hikmah were interrupted in 400/1010 for some reasons in Dar al-Hikmah. It was reopened very soon, but cancelled once again in 401/1010. It was again interrupted for the third time at the end of the year 405/1015 after the nomination of Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Awam as a chief qadi.
Sami Hamarneh writes in Medicine and Pharmacy under the Fatimids (cf. Ismaili Contribution to Islamic Culture ed. by Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Tehran, 1977, p. 163) that, "It seems plausible to speculate that the generosity of al-Hakim towards scholars and scientists had attracted the migration to Fatimid Egypt of eminent figure, Abu Ali Muhammad bin al-Hasan bin al-Haytham (Latin Alhazen) of Basra in southern Iraq." Ibn al-Haytham (354-429/965-1039), the greatest physicist was born in Basra, and was originally appointed to a civil post at Basra. He was avidly consumed by the desire to learn mathematics and philosophy, for which he could not get spare time in his post, therefore, he feigned madness and was dismissed as a result from the post. Our informations about his pre-Egyptian days are deficient, but according to a few accounts of his life, it is known that he managed to leave Basra in order to proceed to Egypt, where he had been invited by the Fatimid Imam al-Hakim.
It must be known that in the summer following the rainy reason, the Nile river and the canals overflow with water, causing millions of tons of fertile silt, containing phosphoric acid, potash and nitrogen. But in the winter, the level of water fell down, making the cultivation of the crops impossible, and in annual inundation it used to cause devastation of life and property. With his brilliant mind, the famous physicist and the founder of the science of optics, Abu Ali Muhammad bin al-Hasan bin al-Haytham came to the conclusion in Iraq that if some of the surplus water available immediately after the rains, could be stored, not only could it be used in the dry season for more cultivation of land, but it would also help to prevent the periodic flood inflicting heavy damage. According to Ibn Abi Usaibia (d. 668/1270) in his Uyn al-Anba fi tabakat al-Attiba (2:91), Ibn al-Haytham had also claimed that, "Had I been in Egypt I could have done something to regulate the Nile, so that the people could derive benefit at its ebb and flow." Thus, he prepared a plan to build a three-way embankment dam near Aswan for harnessing the Nile waters, and sent his report to Imam al-Hakim. He even suggested for a site near Aswan where the river emerged from a gorge into the flat country. Haidar Bammate writes in Muslim Contribution to Civilization (Lahore, 1981, p. 21) that, "Al-Haytham was the first to advocate the construction of a dam at Aswan to raise the level of the Nile."
Imam al-Hakim was deeply impressed when he received the outline of the project and sent one of his emissaries with adequate funds to Ibn al-Haytham in Basra and invited him to Cairo. He readily accepted the royal invitation and after a short stay in Cairo, he was sent up the river with a large sum of money and retinue of workers. He undertook the journey to Aswan, which is situated at a distance of over 400 miles to the south of Cairo as the crow flies. He inspected the site at Aswan and came to the conclusion that such a colossal scheme of works was not feasible under the working conditions. According to Ibn Abi Usaibia, "He saw the pyramids at first glance and became awed by the engineering and geometrical skills of the ancients. Had it been possible he thought, the ancient Egyptians must have done it before." (op. cit., 2:91). Having realized the enormous magnitude of the project, he failed to execute it with the technical means he had at his disposal. Instead therefore of undertaking the start-up of the projected dam, he returned to Cairo and confessed to Imam al-Hakim his sheer inability to go ahead with the proposed plan.
Imam al-Hakim assigned him some office pertaining to revenue, but he is said to have feigned madness, and retired to a place near al-Azhar university. Different stories have been advanced to discredit the personality of Imam al-Hakim in this context. Prof. Abdul Ghafur writes in Ibn al- Haitham (cf. Ibn al-Haitham, Karachi, 1970, pp. 111-2) that, "From this, it should be obvious that, even after Ibn al-Haitham’s inability to go ahead with the plan for construction of the dam at Aswan, al-Hakim had considerable respect for Ibn al-Haitham. It might be that there were monetary difficulties involved in the implementation of the scheme or some other snag. However, the reputation of Ibn al-Haitham remain unscathed in this affair. The plea of insanity was not new to Ibn al-Haitham. He had used this subterfuge once before at Basra. It is therefore plausible to assume that he adopted this ruse in order to devote himself to studies. Qifti, Baihiqi and Ibn Abi Usaibia unanimously held that Ibn al-Haitham was a self-contented person and devoid of avarice or worldly self-aggrandizement."
Baihiqi however wrongly narrates in his Timat al-Sawan al-Hikmat that Ibn al-Haytham steathily left Cairo at the dead night and lived in Syria. This narration contradicts the established fact that he lived in Cairo till his death. The story of the flight of Ibn al-Haytham from Cairo for fear of execution by Imam al-Hakim is the fabrication of the historians. Had he known of his murder, he would have fled from Aswan and never came to Cairo. He however spent the last 19 years of his life in scientific pursuits and experimental research under the shadow of the domes and arches of al-Azhar university, and composed almost 209 books on mathematics, astronomy, physics, philosophy and medicine of which the most celebrated is his Kitab al-Manazir (treatise on optics), which was translated into Latin by Witelo in 1270 and published by Frederick Risner in 1572 at Basel. This was the first comprehensive treatise on optics in the world and immensely influenced the writings of Witelo, Peckham, Roger Bacon, Leonardo de Vinici and John Kepler. He is the first to have discussed the anatomy of the eye. He also discussed the propagation of light and colours, optic illusions and reflection, with experiments for testing the angles of incidence and reflection. Theorically he had almost discovered magnifying lenses through his experiments, which came into existence in Italy three centuries later. For the first time Ibn al-Haytham offered a correct explanation for the apparent increase in the size of the sun and the moon when near the horizon. His another remarkable achievement is his employment of the camera obscura.
Another notable figure was Ali bin Yunus, the great mathematician and astronomer, who invented pendulum and the sun-dial, for whom Imam al-Hakim had the observatory built on Jabal al- Muqattam.
According to Encyclopaedia of World Art (Rome, 1958, 5:367) that, "Rice correctly read the Arabic text carved on it, which does not simply banal good wishes to the owner of the ewer as was previously thought, but says that the ewer was made for the personal use of al-Hakim’s commander."
It will be further interesting to note that Abul Kassim Ammar bin Ali al-Mausili was the most important eye-surgeon in Cairo, and acquired great prestige under the patronage of Imam al- Hakim. He compiled al-Muntakhab fi ilm al-Ayn wa Mudawatiha bi’l Adwiya wal Hadid in 400/1010. It deals the anatomy and physiology of the eye, its diseases and treatment by drugs and surgery. To avoid the dangers of using a breakable glass tube referred to in Greek writings, Ammar invented a hollowed metallic needle used successfully in cataract operations.
Imam al-Hakim had installed an astronomical observatory on Jabal al- Muqattam, near Cairo for Ibn Younus. According to Ibn Khallikan, Imam al-Hakim went out late in the night of 27th Shawal, 411/February 13, 1021 to Jabal al-Muqattam and did not return to the palace. A tracking party was sent out, who found an ass on the top of the hill with its forelegs hacked off. Blood marks on the ground led to a spot, where they found Imam al-Hakim’s clothes pierced by daggers and buttoned up, and as such his death was officially declared on 10th Zilhaja, 411/April 4, 1021. The Druzes however believed that Imam al-Hakim did not die but disappeared, anticipating his return on dooms-day. Makrizi (2:290) quotes one other tradition about Imam al-Hakim’s death on the authority of Abul Mahsin that in 415/1025, a man from Imam Hussain’s family had been arrested after raising up rebellion in the southern part of upper Egypt. He confessed that it was he who had killed Imam al-Hakim. He said that there were four accomplices of the crime, and that they afterwards fled to different parts. He also showed a piece of cotton with which he had been clothed.
Imam al-Hakim died at the age of 36 years and 7 months after the Imamate and Caliphate of 25 years and 1 month. He had two sons, al-Harith (395-400/1004-1009) and Ali Abul Hasan, surnamed az-Zahir. He had also a daughter, Sit al-Misr (d. 455/1063).
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