SYEDNA DAWOOD IBNE QUTUB SHAH (R.A) (997-1021/1589- 1613)
Date of birth: Date of death: Place of burial: Mazoon: Mukasir: Books written in his era:
Syedna Dawood ibne Qutub shah was a great Fatimi Dai and a sign of his great is that Moomineen are known in world communities as Dawoodi Bohra in attribution to him. A number of litrary persons predicted that he will become a great Sultan or a person of great virtues since he was in his childhood. When Syedna Jalal did Nas upon him also when he did Nas uponSyedna Dawood ibne Ajabshah. When Syedna Dawood ibne Qutub Shah ascended onto the throne of Dawat, all Hudud of Dawat residing in Yemen including Suleman sent their letters of congratulation to Syedna. In his letter of congratulation and many other letter that he wrote after it, he confessed about the Dai-ship of Syedna Dawood ibne Qutub shah. After ascending onto the throne of Dawat, Syedna Dawood endeavoured greatly for the guidance of Moomineen to the way through they can achieve the prosperity of both world. He spread the Ilm of Aale-Mohammed among Moomineen and Moominaat and for most of his time, he used to remain busy for this spreading. He sent Hudud Kiram to different areas who Moomineen abided.
Syedna Dawood ibne Qutub shah demanded the wealth of Dawat that was in the hand of some family members of Syedna Dawood ibne Ajab Shah and Raj Mohammed, the inscriber of him. Instead of handing over the wealth of Dawat to Syedna, they stimulated Suleman who was in Yemen to rise in rebellion and to claim the Daiship for himself. Suleman after giving Misaq to Syedna Dawood ibne Qutub Shah, remaining for three years in Dawat and confessing the Daiship of Syedna Dawood rose to rebellion and claimed that he himself is Dai. At the this happening, Shah Murad, the son of Emperor Akbar came to Ahmedabad as a governor of Gujrat. Suleman's men went to him and spoke falsehood against syedna to him. Ibrahim, the astrayed son of Syedna Dawood ibne Ajab Shah claimed !8 lakhs of Rupees against him. They did all this to hide their own crime and to instigate the prince to take action against Syedna. The bribed the influence men in the court of the prince in order to win their support in the case. Chaga beg, a court man of the prince arrested Syedna Sheikh Adam and Maula Ali Mohammed and molested them cruelly in prison. Moomineen complained to Vazir Sadiq Mohammed Khan who helped them in many ways. When shah Murad came to know the truth, he ordered Chafga beg to hand over the charge of arrested persons to Sadiq Mohammed Khan. After a few days, Syedna Sheikh Adam and Maula Ali Mohammed were released with all respect. Sulemanis became more hostile when they faced their humiliation. One day, Ibrahim beat a Moomin and broke his hand. Moomin again went to the Vazir to complain about this hostilities. The Vazir arrested Ibrahim on the recommendation of Shah Abu Turab. After sometime, his release was decided on the condition that he would follow Syedna Dawood ibne Qutub Shah. He refuse to accept the condition and claimed the Dai-ship of Suleman. Hearing this, Moomineen presented the file that contained the letters of Suleman in which he had confessed the Dai-ship of Syedna Dawood. On the base of this file. a Mahdara (document) was prepered to support the Daiship of Syedna Dawood and to condemn the claim of Suleman and his supporters. Vazir Sadiq Mohammed Khan, Qazi Jam Mohammed Sakaki, Amir Kabir, Shah Abu Turab and others signed on this Mahdarah. In Yemen, Suleman molested and terrorized the followers of Dawat in order to compel them to follow him. He conspired to local ruler for the arrest of Miya Chanji when he refused to give false witness for his Dai-ship. When Turk vazir Hasan Pasha came to know about the autocracy of Suleman, he arrested him, imprisoned him, and ordered him to pay 80, 000 Ibrahimi as bail. When Suleman found himself unable to pay the sum, he escaped from prison. Then, with the help of Yaam tribe, he looted a caravan of Hujjaj and fled to India. Suleman reached to India and began his evil activities. It happened that Shah Murad leaved Ahmedabad to go to his expedition of Deccan. He appointed Syed Qasim as his deputy on the city. Sulemanis again started their evil-designs against Syedna and Moomineen. On their intrigues, Syed Qasim arrested Syedna Shaikh Adam And Maula Ali Mohammed. When Begam of Shah Murad who was in Bharonch, came to know the matter, she immediately ordered Syed Qasim to release the arrested pious persons and ordered him to send Suleman and Ibrahim to Bharonch after their arrest. Suleman and Ibrahim escaped from the prison of Bharonch and fled to Lahore to the court of Emperor Akbar. In Lahore, they bribed Ohdi Kamal Khan to arrest Syedna Shaikh Adam, Maula Ali Mohammed and their companions after their arrival to Lahore. After arresting these pious persons , Ohdi went to Ahmedabad to arrest Syedna Dawood. There he molested Moomineen ruthlessly, looted their shops and houses and sealed them. About 27000 Moomieen left Ahmedabad to escapse from the cruelty of Ohdi and resided in different parts of the country. In Lahore, the arrested pious persons faced extreme tyranny of Osman, the brother-in-law of Ohdi. When Vazir Fathullah Ghochki knew about the this tyranny, he ordered the immediate release of them. Ohdi returned to Lahore after tyrannizing and looting Moomineen. when the Emperor was informed about his evil maneuvre, he ordered his arrest before he entered into the city. Ohdi was arrested and presented before the emperor's court. Syedna Shaikh Adam narrated the sad plight of Moomineen to the emperor. Hearing this, the emperor became furious and ordered rigorous imprisonment for Ohdi. Then, in the year of 1004 AH, Syedna Dawood was summond by the emperor Akbar to his court. Syedna Shaikh Adam was asked to bring Syedna Dawood from Ahmedabad. He replied to the emperor through Hakim Ali that though Syedna Dawood was in seclusion for four years, he and his companions would try their best to convey him the kindness and and wish of the emperor. The emperor presented a valuable shawl for Syedna Dawood and 'Khilat' to the four pious person going to Ahmedabad. He also presented a Royal Farman in Syedna's honour ordering all diputies to ensure the safe passage of Syedna with all respect from their realm to the court of the emperor and to order them not to interfere in the religious matters of Bohra community. In this Farman, Syedna Dawood is praised with extremely respectful words -
ALLAH O AKBAR, THIS GLORIOUS FARMAN IS ISSUED GRACIOUSLLY TO SATISFY THE WISHES OF THE PEACE SEEKING ANDPIOUS DAWOOD BIN QUTUB, THE SARDAR OF BOHRAS AFTER CONSIDERING TO INVITE HIM TO OUR COURT. SO, THE DEPUTIES OF GUJRA T ESPECIALL Y THE AUTHORITIES OF AHMEDABAD, SIDHPUR, AND AREAS AROUND ITSHOULLD NOT OBSTRUCT HIM IN HIS W A YS AND LET HIM COME TO US ACCORDING TO HIS WILL. AND THE AUTHORITIES SHOULLD NOT OBJECT HIM AND HIS FOLLLLOWERS ESPECIALLY IN THEIR PELIGIOUS TRADITION, SYSTEM, ZAKA T AND PROHIBITED THINGS. THEY (AUTHORITIES) SHOULD RETURN THEIR SEALED PROPERTIES. GIVE THEM THE FULL AUTHORITY OF THEIR PROPERTIES, AND NOT TO RESTRICT THEM FROM ANY BUSINESS AND OCCUP A TION. THEY (AUTHORITIES) SHOULD GIVE THEM FACILITIES WITHOUT BEING COVETOUS FOR ANYTHING. THEY SHOULD RETURN THEIR SEIZED PROPERTIES, BECAUSE IN NEAR FUTURE THEIR CASE IS TO BE TAKEN UNDER CONSIDERA TION. KARORIES, JAGIRDARS AND ALL RESPONSIBLE MANSABDARS OF GUJRAT ARE REQUIRED TO EXTEND ALL FACILITIES TO THE MENTIONED PIOUS PERSON WHILE P ASSING THROUGH THEIR TERRITORIES. IF HE W ANTS ANY GUIDE, THEY SHOULLD PROVIDE HIM FOR SAFETY AGAINST ROBBERY AND ALL DANGERS IN THE W A Y . TO RESPECT HIM MUST BE CONSIDERED AS A DUTY. Ist Rabi ul Akhar 1005 AH. Capital Lahore.
The four pious persons went to Ahmedabad and within three months, they returned with Syedna Dawood (R. A). At the time, Syedna arrived Lahore, the emperor had gone to Kahmir for recreation purpose. Hakim Ali who was in Lahore, sent some noblemen, and a party of cavalry and infantry to receive Syedna Dawood and to escort him to the city. When Suleman who was not expecting the arrival of Syedna to Lahore and was busy in dissipative activities, heard the news of Syedna's arrival, he suffered with high fever, worms were created in his tongue and, after some days, he died with an admonitary death. Syedna Dawood (R. A) proceeded to Kashmir to the court of the Emperor Akbar. When the emperor was informed about the arrival of Syedna Dawood, he became very glad and received him with honour. Syedna (R. A) was seated at a high place in the court of the emperor and presented a valuable 'Khilat'. The emperor beecame very impressed of Syedna Dawood's personality, piety, and spirituality. Syedna (R. A) successfully defended Dawat and his DAi-ship. Allah bestowed upon him Fath-e- Moobin in the court of the Emperor Akbar and humilated the enemies of him and Dawat.
The emperor requested Syedna (R. A) to stay in the court for some period. Honoring the wish of the emperor, Syedna (R. A) stayed there for a few months. Every morning, he used to attend the court in the morning and the recite Al-Quran Al-Karim as he was Hafiz ul Quran. The emperor was so impressed by the piety and spirituality of Syedna Dawood and he was so attracted to his 'Wahje Munir' that he used to gaze constantly at Syedna's face. All Vazirs and noblemen of the court, especially Hakim Ali, Abul Fazal, Khan Azam were very cordial to Syedna and he was also very kind to him. The emperor granted a Royal Farman and presented a valuable horse to Syedna Dawood (R. A). Syedna returned to Lahore with the emperor, and from thence he returned to Ahmedabad with Fateh Moobin in Moharram 1007 AH. In 1008 AH, Syedna Dawood (R. A) built a magnificant masjid in Ahmedabad as a Shukr upon Fateh Moobin. The Masjid was so beautiful that people from far flung areas came to visit it. Governor of Ahmedabad Shamsuddin and Governor of Khambat Mir Qasim also came to visit it. After the Fateh Moobin, the relation with the deputies of Ahmedabad was harmonized. But, in 1011 AH, Shadman, the son of Khan Azam came to Ahmedabad as a deputy of the emperor. He became hosbile to Syedna Dawood (R. A) and Moomineen. So, Syedna (R. A) left the city. A group o Moomineen was sent to the court of the emperor at Agra for complaining the molest of Shadman. When Khan Azam, the father of Shadman and Amir of Gujrat came to know the hostilities of his son, he dismissed him. The news of his molest of Syedna and Moomineen reached to the emperor and his vazirs. Shadman faced humilation when he reached to the capital. In 1014 AH, when emperor Jahangir ascended onto the throne after the death of his father, he sent Sh. Farid Khan Syed Murtaza Bukhari as his deputy on Gujrat. Sh. Farid helped much to Syedna Shaikh Adam (R. A) and was very cordial to Syedna Dawood (R. A) in Lahore. On his arrival to Ahmedabad, he inquired about Syedna Dawood. When he did not find Syedna (R. A) in the city and learnt the reason for which he left the city, he requested Syedna (R. A) to return to his home town. Syedna (R. A) returned to the city and Sh. Farid received him with due respect. He uesed to come to Syedna's recidence on Eid days and invite him to his palace. On one Eid day, whhen Syedna Dawood (R. A) came to his court, he received him with great respect and kissed his hand in reverence. On one occasion, he declared openly before all courtmen and Ulema of Muslims that there was no Aalim (Scholar) more pious and wise in this period than Shaikh Dawood. Many Ulema of Muslims considered this statement of Sh. Farid as humilation of them and became jealous of Syedna (R. A). On his recommendation, Emperor Jahangir renewed the Khaqani Farman. In this Farman, virtues and glories of Syedna Dawood is explained with respectful words and all deputies and Governors of Gujrat and other areas are instructedfor no-intereference in the religious matter Bohras. The Farman declares -
THIS FARMAN IS ISSUED AND IT IS COMPULSORY TO OBEY IT. IT IS EXPLAINED THAT THE SOURCE OF VIRTUES, FOUNT AINHEAD OF PURITY , KNOW FOR HIS FOLLOWING OF SHARIA T, CHARACTERISED BY THE P A TH (OF SHARIA T), LEARNED OF FACT, SHAIKH DAWOOD GUJRATI AND HIS COMPANIANS ARE VIRTUOUS AND REVERED PEOPLE IN EVERY ASPECT. HE (SYEDNA) IS SCHOLAR OF ALL KNOWLEDGES, PIOUS IN ALL RESPECT, HE IS THE PERSON OF WISDOM, ZOHOD, AND TAQWA. THEREFORE, IT IS COMPULSORY TO ALL DEPUTIES AND OFFICIALS OF PRESENT AND FUTURE IN THE PROVINCE GUJRAT-AHMEDABAD THAT IN ORDER TO GAIN THE SATISFACTION AND BENEVOLENCE OF THE EMPEROR, THEY SHOULD NOT DO ANY HARM TO THE MENTIONED HIS EXCELLENCY AND HIS FOLLOWERS. THIS IS ALSO MADE COMPULSORY TO SADAT IZAM, QAZIS OF ISLAM, MASHAEEKH KIRAM, ULOMA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF AHMEDABAD AND OTHER AREAS OF GUJRAT THAT THEY WORK IN ACCORDANCE OF THIS ORDER. THEY SHOULD NOT INTERFERE OR RAISE OBJECTION IN THE AFFAIRS OF THEIR RELIGIOUS FAITH. THEIR RELIGIOUS FAITH IS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SHARIAT OF ISLAM. THEY SHOULD BE ALLOWED TO LIVE FREELY SO THAT THEY PRAY FOR BETTERMENT OF OUR EMPIREAND STRIVE FOR ITS BETTERMENT. 19TH JAMADIL ULA, 1019 AH.
Farid Khan remained in Ahmedabad upto 1018 AH, but due to the renewned Farman e Jahangiri, succeeding deputies abstained from molesting Moomineen. Syedna Dawood ibne Qutub shah passed away on I5 Jamadil Ukhra 1021/ 1622 in Ahmedabad. During the period of Syedna Dawood ibne Qutub shah (R. A), Portuguese settled at Mambasa. In 1600 AD, East India Co was founded. Fierce battle erupted in 1602 AD between Safavids of Persia and Ottomans of Turkey. This battle lasted upto 1627 AD. In 1603 AD, Heavy outbreak of plague occured in London and thousands of people were killed. Queen Elizebath of England died in 1603 and succeeded by her cousin James iv. Emperor Akbar died in 1605 and succeded by his son Jahangir. In 1610, Henry iv of France assasinated and succeeded by his son Louis iii (1610-1643). In 1613, Ottoman Turks invaded Hungry. In intellectual fields many important things occured during the period of Syedna Dawood. First English paper mill was established in 1590 AD. In 1608, Dutch scientist Johann Lippershey constructed the telescope and Galileo constructed astronomical telescope. In 1616, Galileo was prohibited by Catholic church from further scientific work. Regular newspaper started in Germany in 1609. William Shakespears began to write his play at London in 1690 and after writing more than thirty plays, he died in 1616.
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